These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation

Return to LETTER bar


HADES: See Physical Death


HAPPINESS: Survey - via Hebrew word - Asheray


HATRED: Orientation to God's hatred

HATRED: Believer's attitude of hatred

HEALING: In the Atonement

Healing: Spiritual Gift

HEAVEN: The saints in heaven

Heaven is for Real: Book Review



HEAVEN: Saints in Heaven

HEBREW Verbal orientation

HEBREW Grammatical Study: Gen. 2:17

HELL: Lake of Fire: Eternal judgment

Helps: Spiritual Gift

HEROD: The Great

HEZEKIAH: Historical background to 711 BC

HIGH PLACES: From Joel introduction

HOLY SPIRIT: His person and work

HOLY SPIRIT: Indwelling

Holy Spirit: Baptism and filling

Holy Spirit: DRAWING/convicting

HOLY SPIRIT: Sealing Ministry

HOLY SPIRIT: Teaching ministry




HUMILITY: Orientation - James 4

HUMILITY: Creation Humility


1. Happiness must be viewed from two aspects:

A. There is a temporary, relative happiness that depends on outside stimulations in life. Happiness in prosperity and unhappiness in adversity.

B. There is a "settled" stable happiness in the soul which is not influenced by either prosperity or adversity. This quality of happiness is a contented, tranquil condition in the soul that is based on confidence in God's character and plan.

2. This quality of happiness is available only to the one who has trusted in Christ as savior.
But the bible indicates that there is a degree of "human" happiness possible to the unbeliever.

A. Happiness through adherence to the moral institutions of society.

1. Marriage: Prov. 5:18; Ec. 9:9; Isaiah 62:5
2. Family: Prov. 23:24-25; Psalm 127:5
3. National entity: Proverbs 21:15

B. A temporary, relative happiness based on overt circumstances and a minimum amount of adversity. Ec. 1:16-18; 2:1-11; 3:12, 22; 5:10, 18-20; 11:8-9

3. The first step to a stable happiness in life is through salvation. There is an initial joy for the one who trusts in Christ as savior. Lk. 8:13; 1 Thes. 1:6; Acts 8:8, 39; 13:48; 16:34

4. But this initial experience of joy must be cultivated through spiritual growth and obedience to the spiritual truths of God or it can be lost. Psalm 51:12

5. God's plan is to have His perfect happiness (the happiness of Christ) produced consistently in the life of the believer. Rom. 14:17; John 15:11
But it depends on more than a salvation relationship with God.

6. Happiness in the Christian life depends on knowing and using the word of God through the filling/control of the Holy Spirit.

A. Gal. 5:22-23; Rom. 14:17
B. John 13:17, "If you know these things, HAPPY are you IF you do them."
C. John 15:11; 17:13; Rom. 15:13; Prov. 8:32-34; Jer. 15:16; James 1:25

7. The following list of passages need to be consulted in order to get a full picture of what is involved with true Christian happiness.

John 16:24; Acts 2:46; 5:41; 11:23
Romans 15:31-32; 16:19
1 Cor. 16:17; 2 Cor. 7:4-16; 8:2
Philippians 2:2, 17, 28-29; 4:1
Colossians 2:5; 1 Thes. 2:19-20; 3:9; 2 Tim. 1:4
2 John 4, 12; 3 John v. 3-4.

8. God's happiness in the soul comes from expressing confidence in Him.
Psalm 2:11-12; 16:7-11; 28:7; Prov. 16:20

9. Such confidence in the character and plan of God will produce true happiness even in the midst of national disaster. Hab. 3:18

10. Accordingly, such confidence and joy perpetuates optimism (soul strength) in the face of any and any situation in life. Nehemiah 8:10, "the Joy of Yahweh is your strength."

11. True inner happiness and optimism go hand in hand. At nighttime, the pressures of the day often times are more impacting on the believer's soul than at other times. But for the one who knows and uses God's word, the pressures can be faced with confidence and in the morning, the trusting believer can greet the day with happiness and optimism. Psalm 30:5,
"weeping may last for the night, but joyful optimism comes in the morning."

12. Also under the pressure of persecution. James 1:2; Rom. 5:2-5 (Rom. 8:28)

13. The proclamation of truth by the teacher of God's word is designed to produce happiness in the life of the hearers. 2 Cor. 1:24; James 1:21-25; (Jer. 15:16)

14. Notice the chain and progress of spiritual growth as outlined at Col. 1:9-11

15. There will be maximum happiness for all believers when we are present with the Lord.
Jude 24; Rev. 21:4

16. For detailed amplification see Asheray - below.


HAPPINESS: Survey - via Hebrew word - Asheray

1. I Kings 10.8 (2 Chron. 9.7) - observations by the Queen of Sheba

A. Luke 11.31 - testimony given by Jesus

B. 1 Kings 10.1-8

C. Recognize the genuine happiness which comes from the pursuit of truth.

Psalm 119.2; Pr. 3.13; 8.32, 34; 29.18


2. Happiness from creature reverence toward God.

Ps. 112.1; 128.1; Prov. 28.14


3. From living the FAITH REST LIFE:

Ps. 34.8; 40.4; 84.5, 12; 146.5; Prov. 16.20; Is. 30.18


4. From salvation relationship with God. Ps. 2.12; 32.1


5. From fellowship: Ps. 1.1; 32.2; 65.4; 89.15

6. From genuine worship activity: Ps. 84.4

7. From proper attitude toward Divine discipline. Ps. 94.12; Job 5.17

8. From character stability: Integrity -

A. Ps. 106.3; 119.1;

B. The woman of integrity: Prov. 31.28

C. The sons of a man of integrity: Pr. 20.7

9. From application of truth to others. Ps. 41.1-3; Pr. 14.21

10. From moral prosperity:

A. Family: Ps. 127.5; Gen. 30.13

B. social: Ps. 128.2; 144.12-15

C. National leaders: Ec. 10.17

11. Special status of the nation of Israel: Deut. 33.29; Ps. 33.10-12

12. For the one who fulfills a Specific Divine role in human history.

Judgment context - Ps. 137.8-9

13. In the Millennial kingdom:

A. Those who enter: Dan. 12.12

B. Economic prosperity: Is. 32.20

C. Following Divine policy: Is. 56.2



1. Man's soul is created and designed to operate in compliance with the divine priority for the human race. Ie, Divine standards of absolute truth.

A. Unbeliever: Salvation information and morality.
B. Believer: Christian way of life information; good worship (godliness).

2. Man's sin nature as the ultimate expression of human independence from God, is constantly competing with the demand of God's priority on man's life. Gen. 8:21.
It distorts normal soul functions.

3. The sin nature's deceptiveness (Jer. 17:9; Heb. 3:13) can influence the volition of the unbeliever to reject the gospel and can influence the volition of the believer to reject any aspect of divine viewpoint for his life.

4. Hardness of heart (H/H) is the term that describes this ATTITUDE of negative volition.

A. For the unbeliever: He perceives and rejects gospel information. And he will perceive and reject divine morality.

B. For the believer: He perceives and rejects any aspect of divine viewpoint in two areas of living; morality living and spiritual (worship) living.

5. Giving into temptation and committing some expression of personal sin, is not H/H in itself, but failure to confess the sin and persistence in the attitude and status of that sin, IS.
This is rebellion against divine design.

A. It rejects the divine attitude toward sin.
B. It rejects the principle of divine forgiveness
C. The sin nature takes control and causes a malfunction of the emotions (called emotional revolt) Lam. 1:20; Heb. 3:13

6. Once in the attitude of H/H sets in, the soul begins a process of inner destruction which is called darkened and calloused.

A. The principle is found at Job 9:4; Pr. 28:14
B. The details at Rom. 1:21-22 and Eph. 4:17-19
C. See - the Darkness process

7. The attitude of H/H results in the ignorance (agnoia) of the soul. Ie, ignorance of the knowledge of God which then produces disorientation to divine design which is called "alienation from the life of God."
Ephesians 4:18

8. The ignorance and disorientation produces a soul which is empty of divine viewpoint.

A. Eph. 4:17: the mind (nous). Emphasis on self-consciousness.
B. The understanding: dianoia at Eph. 4:17 and dialogismos at Rom. 1:21
C. The empty soul then functions like a "vacuum" which draws into the soul, viewpoint contrary to the divine viewpoint which was rejected. Rom. 1:21-25

9. This opposition viewpoint is "darkness." It is anything that does not conform to the absolute standards of God's light as found in the bible.
Worldly and demonic doctrines: 1 Tim. 4:1; Col. 2:8

10. Darkness viewpoint blinds the soul causing a spiritual "blackout." All the facets (functions) of the soul are filled up and influenced by darkness to the point of total distortion and soul slavery.

A. Dark understanding (dianoia) at Eph. 4:18
B. Dark heart (kardia) at Rom. 1:21

11. The darkened condition of the soul causes all the facets of the heart to become scarred and calloused by darkness viewpoint. This then hinders the normal function of the heart and results in an inner and overt way of life which continues to reject divine viewpoint and conforms itself to whatever doctrines of darkness were embraced. Eph. 4:19a
Basically, no restraints on the sin nature.

A. Emotional or gnostic
B. Lascivious or ascetic
C. Inability to perceive divine viewpoint while in H/H: Zech. 7:12
D. The emotions revolt and, with the sin nature, try to find stability in life independent from divine viewpoint.

12. The sin nature rules the soul and, empowered by darkness viewpoint, manifests its true nature of self promotion and independence from God, consistently and without restraint.
Gal. 5:19-21; Mark 7:21-23; Lam 1:20 (emotions)

13. The darkness way of life that results for the unbeliever is described at Rom. 1:21-32.

A. The gospel truth rejected, is discarded, and is then distorted by Satanic influence.
Luke 8:12; 2 Cor. 4:4

B. There is never any certainty that additional information will be provided and they will probably die in their sin of rejecting Jesus. John 8:21-24
C. But at some point, God will simply "turn over" the hardened heart to reap the consequences of its negative attitude. Rom. 1:24, "God gave them over."

14. The darkness way of life that results for the believer is described at Eph. 4:19b as well as Gal. 5:19-21. But in this case, the Holy Spirit is constantly convicting the believer - -

A. Through the communication of divine viewpoint: Heb. 3:7, 15
B. Through the administration of divine discipline: Heb. 12:4-13

15. Recovery from the darkness process requires an act of recognition and adjustment to the authority and viewpoint of God.
   A. For the unbeliever, hardness of heart is temporarily "interrupted" whenever they hear the
      gospel again.
      That is because the Holy Spirit will convict of "sin, righteousness and judgment," John
      16:8. This will put their mind in kind of a "neutral" position and they will have another
      chance to believe in Christ. If they trust in Christ, the hardness of heart will be removed
      and the blindness from the influence of "the god of this world" will be lifted. Such a one will
      then be able to hear and respond to divine standards for living as a Christian.
      If they do not believe in Him, hardness of heart will kick back in and intensify.
      But as long as they are alive here on earth, they may have several opportunities to believe.

  B. For the believer

1. Initial confession of sin for restoration to fellowship and the filling/control of the Spirit.
2. Change of status quo activity in life to fulfill Rom. 12:1-2 and Prov. 28:13 (confess and forsake).
3. Then, habitual use of 1 John 1:9 and volitional faithfulness to the Rom. 12 principle through consistent adherence to growth process. Eph. 4:20-24

4. God uses two things to provoke the believer to begin spiritual recovery.

a. Divine discipline: Heb. 12:5-13
b. Dishonorable communication: 2 Cor. 11:17, 21; 13:10
c. Both are designed to "shock" the self-consciousness of the soul into looking fresh at divine viewpoint and perhaps motivate volition to make a positive decision for truth.
d. This "shock" basically normalizes volition for an instant, at which time it is able to choose - either to turn around or enter into maximum revolt. 2 Tim. 2:25-26

16. Because of the calloused condition of the soul that results from the darkness process, once recovery is begun, a great deal of spiritual information will be required to correct the damage and restore the soul. Principle of Heb. 5:11-14

17. Protection against hardness of heart:

A. Consistent occupation with the word of God. Ie, Abiding in Him, 1 Jn. 2:24 and 3:6. Psalm 119:11
B. Immediate use of 1 John 1:9 (confession of sin) when necessary.
C. In the recovery stage, the longer that one spends out of fellowship, the more likeliness that the recovery process will be aborted.
D. Encouragement from other believers is even more valuable in this situation than normally. Heb. 3:13 (Proper divine viewpoint fellowship with others).

18. Examples of hardness of heart:


1. Pharaoh: God knows Pharaoh's attitude. Ex. 3:19

a. God said that he would harden Pharaoh's heart. Ex. 4:21
b. God does not control volition. He never tampers with volition, but He does provide divine viewpoint information to Pharaoh and the Pharaoh himself rejects.

c. Thus, Pharaoh hardens his own heart. He says no to divine viewpoint. Ex. 7:14; 8:32; 9:34-35

d. God continues to provide information and Pharaoh continues to harden his heart. Thus, God hardens Pharaoh's heart. But indirectly through providing information, not be controlling volition.

e. Both Pharaoh and Moses had equal opportunity to become a believer. Moses accepted and Pharaoh did not. Heb. 11:24-26

f. God allowed Pharaoh to be ruler in Egypt in order to promote His own character and plan. Ex. 9:16; Rom. 9:17

g. This would take place whether Pharaoh were a believer or not. But his life, either way, would further promote divine design.

h. He chose to reject, so the decree was fulfilled through judgment rather than blessing. Josh. 2:10; Ex. 7:5; 14:4, 17-18

2. Sihon, king of Heshbon: Deut. 2:30
3. Kings of Canaan: Josh. 11:20
4. Zedekiah: 2 Chron. 36:11-13
5. Pharisees: Mark 3:1-6
6. Corinthians: Acts 19:9
7. Israel as a nation: Rom. 11:7-8, 25; 2 Kings 17:7-18


1. The Exodus generation: Neh. 9:16-17; Ps. 95:7-11
2. Principle: Pr. 1:20-33
3. Disciples of Jesus: Mark 6:52 + 8:14-21
4. Proverbs 5:12-14
5. Heb. 3:12-15


1. Hard face: Jer. 5:3
2. Stiff neck: Jer. 7:26; 17:23; 19:15
3. Stiff face: Ezek. 2:4
4. Heavy ears + hard shoulder: Zech. 7:11
5. Stiff forehead: Ezek. 3:7
6. Hard spirit: Deut. 2:30
7. Hardness: Rom. 2:5
8. Unrepentant heart: Rom. 2:5
9. Uncircumcised heart and ears: Acts 7:51; Deut. 10:16
10. Fat heart: Isaiah 6:10

19. There is a point in the darkness condition for the believer when he reaches a place of "no remedy." Prov. 29:1; 2 Chron. 36:16

A. When such a point is reached, God administers maximum divine discipline. This is called the sin unto death. 1 John 5:16-17
B. This is physical removal from this earth through physical death.
See topic: Sin unto death and return

20. Because of the existence of hardness of heart toward divine design in God's people, God has instituted various procedures in the area of morality to govern His people.

A. Divorce: Mat. 19:8; Mark 10:5
B. Capital punishment: Gen. 9:6; Rom. 13:1-4
C. Child discipline: Prov. 13:24; 23:13-14;
D. Principle of gleaning: Lev. 19:9-10; Deut. 24:19-22 (see topic: gleaning)
E. Laws of warfare: Deut. 20

Return to THE HEART


HATRED: Orientation to God's hatred

A. What God hates:

1. Proverbs 8.13 - God's wisdom (personified) hates ---

a. Pride: gāAh - from gAAh -to rise up-speaks of self centeredness.

b. arrogance: gAōn-exaltation-intensity of pride into arrogant self-promotion.

c. the way of evil: derek + ra - the way of life which promotes self.

d. the mouth of perversities: tahpukAh - verbal rebellion

2. idolatry: Deut. 12.31; 16.22; Jer. 44.1-4

3. Ritual without reality: Is. 1.13-14; Amos 5.21-23; Is. 61.8

4. The arrogance of Jacob: Amos 6.8

5. Malachi 2.16 - divorce

6. Proverbs 6.16 - these 6 things

a. arrogant eyes: rüm - exalted

b. a tongue of deception - sheqer

c. murder

d. devising schemes of wickedness: mental attitude sins

e. feet running to evil: overt anarchy and crime

f. false witness

g. spreading strife: gossip, maligning etc.

h. here we have the correlation between hate and abomination

B. What God abominates: tōābhAh

1. Lev. 18.1-26 - all phallic cult activity

2. Deut. 7.25 - idol images; V. 27.15

3. Deut. 18.9-12 - all occult activity

4. Deut. 22.5 - opposite clothing -

5. Deut. 23.18 - offering of a harlot's wages

6. Deut. 24.4 - remarriage of spouse after divorce and remarriage

7. Deut. 25.13-16 - dishonest business practices; Pr. 11.1; 20.10, 23;

8. Prov. 11.20 - the perverse in heart

9. Prov. 12.22 - lying lips

10. Prov. 15.8; 21.27 - the sacrifice of the wicked

11. Prov. 15.9 - the way of the wicked

12. Prov. 15.26 - evil plans

13. Prov. 28.9 - the prayer of the one who rejects truth

C. What is evil (ra) in God's sight is called detestable: Jer. 7.30

shiqquts - refers to idolatry activity

1. Deut. 29.14-18

2. Specific idol gods: 1 Kings 11.5, 7; 2 Kings 23.13

3. Jer. 13.27 - sexual immorality in an idolatry context

4. Isaiah 66.3-4

D. Who God hates

1. Psalm 5.5 - all who do iniquity

2. Idolaters:

a. Canaanites: Lev. 20.23

b. Israel: Lev. 26.30; Ps. 78.58-59; 106.40;

3. Israel because of rebellion: Jer. 12.8

4. The Exodus generation: Ps. 95.10

5. Ps. 5.6 - the man of bloodshed

6. Ps. 11.5 - one who loves violence

7. Zech. 8.17 - those who devise evil in the heart and those who love perjury (an oath of deception)

8. Malachi 1.3; Rm. 9.13 - Esau (because of his unbeliever status)

E. Who God abominates:

1. Proverbs 3.32 - morally deviant man

2. Proverbs 16.5 - Everyone who is proud in heart.

3. Proverbs 17.15 - everyone who justifies the wicked and who condemns the righteous

F. The Messiah:

1. During his ministry: Ps. 45.7; Heb. 1.9 - hated lawlessness

2. Attitude in session: Rev. 2.6 - the deeds of the Nicolaitans.

The Nicolaitans were an apostate sect which arose in the early church and advocated participation in idolatrous festivals and immorality as indicated by the language of Rev. 2.14-15. Most authorities believe it was founded by Nicolas, the deacon of Acts 6.5, but it cannot be proven.


HATRED: Believer's attitude of hatred

1. Principle:

A. Proverbs 8.13 - the fear of Yahweh is to hate evil

B. Psalm 97.10 - you who love Yahweh, hate evil.

C. Proverbs 13.5 - a righteous man hates falsehood

D. Amos 5.15 - hate evil, love good, establish justice


2. The believer of Psalm 119 -

A. V. 104, 128 - every false way

B. V. 113 - the double minded

C. V. 163 - falsehood

D. V. 158 - loathe the treacherous

3. Psalm 139.21-22 - David hates ---

A. those who hate you O Yahweh

B. loathe those who rebel against you

C. with the utmost hatred

4. Psalm 15.4 - the believer who maintains fellowship with God will despise a reprobate

5. Principle of benefit:

A. Proverbs 15.27 -he who hates bribes will live

B. Proverbs 28.16 - leader who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.

6. Deut. 7.25-26 - idolatry

7. Hatred used in hyperbole for orientation to details of life.

A. John 12.25

B. Mt. 10.34-39

C. Luke 14.26

8. The issue of love: Rom. 13.8

A. Mt. 5.43-48

B. Luke 6.35-36

C. Romans 12.9

9. Thus, Jude 23 - all hatred must be viewed in this context ---

hate the garment polluted by the flesh.

10. There is no scriptural basis for hating anyone except in the context of Jude V. 23 - ie, lifestyle and sins

11. There is no room in Christianity for racial, gender, social or political hate.


HEALING: In the Atonement

1. Based on Isaiah 53:4-5, there is a teaching that demands healing for all believers because Christ carried all diseases on the cross. This is false and evil and takes eyes off the truth of the word of God.

2. Isaiah 53:4-5 in the King James Version:

"Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:
yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted.
But he was wounded for our transgressions,
he was bruised for our iniquities;
the chastisement of our peace was upon him;
and with his stripes we are healed."

3. Isaiah 53:4-5, corrected translation:

"Surely our diseases He Himself bore, and our sorrows He carried;
yet we ourselves regarded Him stricken,
smitten by God and afflicted.
But He was pierced for our transgressions,
He was crushed for our iniquities;
The punishment providing our peace, fell upon Him,
And by His blow we are mended (reconciled)."

4. The real issue is, when is this passage fulfilled?
V. 4 is quoted at Mat. 8:16-17 and specifically finds its fulfillment DURING the earthly ministry of Jesus when he went about healing. This was BEFORE the cross NOT DURING.

5. Old Testament prophets are quoted in the gospels at the time of fulfillment. So it is with Mat. 8:16-17.
Examples in Matthew: 1:21-23; 2:14-15; 2:16-18; 2:22-23; 4:13-15; 12:15-18; 13:34-35; 21:2-5; 26;53-56; 27:7-10; 27:35

6. There was no healing for Paul, Epaphroditus, Timothy or Trophimus. Were their sicknesses not carried on the cross? Exactly! Because no one's "sickness" was carried on the cross.

7. Comments on Isaiah 53:5

A. Remember the perspective of the passage is the confession of the nation of Israel as they recognize Christ as the Messiah much later in their history. V. 1-10

B. Pierced for our transgressions: physical aspects of the cross.
transgressions = pesha = rebellion against divine policy for the nation.

C. Crushed for our iniquities: The soul agony of spiritual death. Ps. 22:1
Iniquities = Awōn = personal sins in general with emphasis on sin nature rebellion and independence from God.

D. The chastening: musAr = punishment in this context.
Messiah was not "disciplined" or "chastised" for the sins of the world.
He was JUDGED for those sins. He paid the penalty for those sins.

E. For our peace: shAlōm - speaks of the absence of enmity.
Thus, peace with God.

F. Fell upon Him: no verb occurs here but it is implied and thus is very emphatic.
He took our place to provide a removal of the enmity between us and God. If we take the "musar" then we spend eternity in the lake of fire.

G. By his scourging: chaburAh = a mark from a whip, or a blow.
Speaks of the administration of justice upon the guilty part. In this case, since Jesus, though innocent, took our place, He is the "guilty party."
Administered by the Father: Is. 53:10a
placement of all sins upon Christ: 1 Pet. 2:24a

H. We are healed: rApha = drawn together, mended, stitched, repaired, healed.
But it is a "spiritual" healing which is in view, not physical.
This is a reference to the doctrine of reconciliation which results from God "making peace" with us through Christ. Rom. 5:1, 6-11;
This is quoted at 1 Pet. 2:24b with the context of v. 25 to indicate a reconciliation to God.

8. Therefore, it should be clear that there is no reference at Isaiah 53 to some "healing in the atonement," nor any other place for that matter.



1. Man is composed of body, soul and spirit. 1 Thes. 5:23

2. The soul of man is designated by the Hebrew, nephesh and the Greek, psuchā.
It is comprised of two basic elements, mentality and emotion.

A. The mentality of the soul is called the heart and is the controller of the soul.
(Hebrew = lābh; Greek = kardia) Prov. 4:23

B. The emotion of the soul is called reins or bowels and is the responder and appreciator of the soul.

3. The heart contains three elements of character and personality.
Mind, conscience and self consciousness. CF. Titus 1:15 (mind and conscience)

A. MIND: Luke 1:51; Heb. 4:12 - which contains both memory and frame of reference.

B. CONSCIENCE: Heb. 10:22; 1 Sam. 24:5-6; Deut. 4:9 - this contains the standards of the soul; the measurement for right and wrong.

C. SELF CONSCIOUSNESS: Awareness of who you are; ego; volition.
Prov. 16:9; 24:32; Psalm 10:6; 36:1-2; Ec. 1:16

4. The learning process: Pr. 24:32; Jer. 15:16

A. Knowledge perceived enters the soul through the mind (Luke 24:45). The Greek word for the mind is nous.

B. Here it is analyzed based on standards and frame of reference, related to self-consciousness and then responded to by volition.

C. Accepted information becomes "understanding" (dialogismos) which is the source of viewpoint and insight and is stored in the dianoia.

D. It is then transferred to the conscience as new norms and standards in either life or godliness. Heb. 10:22; Titus 1:15; Prov. 14:33

E. It is retained in the understanding (dianoia) of the mind (nous) as memory and frame of reference. 2 Pet. 3:1

F. The conscience and the "understanding" of the mind then form the character of the soul by influencing self-consciousness and volition. Lk. 1:51 (dianoia); Rom. 7:25 (nous).

G. Rejected information is assigned to the memory center where it may or may not be recalled.

H. When the Bible speaks of taking information "to heart," it refers to a total acceptance of the information to the point of character influence whether good or bad.

I. If the information is divine viewpoint, and is rejected, it is subject to Satanic distortion either direct or indirect. Lk. 8:12 + 2 Cor. 4:4.

J. Upon rejection of divine viewpoint, the soul begins the hardening and darkness process which ultimately leads to total spiritual neutralization and the attendant psychosis and/or neurosis.

K. Even accepted information can be subject to "sub-memory" storage. 2 Pet. 1:12-13; 3:1-2

5. The quality of knowledge in the heart is what determines the character and stability of the person. Prov. 27:19; 23:7
Basically, it is the understanding (dianoia) and the conscience which contain character forming knowledge. Pr. 4:23; Eph. 4:18

6. The emotions of the soul respond to the character of the heart when it is stable and upright (morally straight). They reflect that character in giving expressions of appreciation or disapproval toward the things of life in both the human and spiritual realms.

7. The entire disposition of the soul is then reflected in mental attitude and actions through the human spirit as one's personality. Pr. 15:13; Ps. 78:8; 51:10; Lk. 1:46-47; Josh. 2:11.
The human spirit is the expression and reflection of the soul.
As goes the heart - so goes the spirit.

8. The sin nature is in the physical body (Rom. 7:17-21), but is directly "wired" to the heart so that its corrupt nature influences the entire person. Gen. 8:21; Jer. 17:9; Mark 7:21

9. Volition and self-consciousness are the center of the conflict between divine viewpoint standards and human viewpoint. Therefore, the battle takes place in the heart.

A. The world: Col. 2:4-9; 2 Tim. 3:13-17; Rom. 16:18
B. The flesh (sin nature): Rom. 7:23; James 1:13-14; 1 Pet. 2:11; Gal. 5;16-17
C. The devil: Luke 8:12; 2 Cor. 4:3-4; 1 Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Cor. 11:13-15; Eph. 6:11-12
D. Temptation in general is directed to the heart. Ps. 141;4; Prov. 6:25; Job 31:7, 9, 27.

10. The results of failure to operate according to divine standards in the heart: Basically - retrogression. Jer. 7:24

A. The facets of the heart are affected:

1. The understanding: Titus 1:15; Rom. 1:21; Eph. 4:18
Depletion of frame of reference (loss of memory)
Heb. 5:12; Deut. 4:9; Hos. 4:11; 2 Pet. 1:9

2. The conscience: Titus 1:15
3. The self-consciousness: puffed up with pride. Rom. 1:22
4. The volition: enters the darkness process and becomes enslaved to the emotions. Titus 1:15 (nous).

B. The emotions, as responders, revolt and take control of the soul.

1. Maximum misery and depression. Is. 57:20-21; Lam 3:13-18; Ps. 73:21-22
2. False doctrine and subjectivity is expressed. Rom. 16:17-18; Phil. 3:18-19

C. The soul disruption overflows into the physical body.
Prov. 14:30; 15:13, 30; 17:22; 11:17; Judges 19:5; Gen. 18:5; 1 Sam. 28:5

D. Imitation of the unbeliever's character. Gal. 5:19-21

11. The ultimate result of this negative attitude toward God is the hardened heart and the darkened soul. See HARDNESS OF HEART and return.

12. The physical body of the believer is the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19), but in actuality, the Holy Spirit takes up residence in the heart, the mentality of the soul. 2 Cor. 1:22; Gal. 4:6


HEBREW Verbal orientation

A. The action of the Hebrew verb is expressed by 4 things:

1. Stem: This will be mentioned first and speaks of the kind of action taking place.

2. Tense: This will be mentioned second and speaks of the action in reference to time, duration, completion and expectation.

3. Participle (part.): the participle treats the verb as a noun or adjective with specific reference to action.

a. The active (a.) participle is when the subject is performing the action.

Psalm 2.12 - "How happy are those who take refuge in Him." qal a. part.

Psalm 37.1 - "Do not fret because of ones being harmful." (hiphil participle)

b. The passive (p.) participle is when the subject is receiving the action.

Psalm 119.21-"Under a curse (cursed) are those who wander ---." (qal p. part.)

4. Infinitive (inf.): there are two forms and functions for the Hebrew infinitive.

a. The infinitive absolute (abs.) treats the verb as a gerund (verbal noun) with emphasis on abstract action without reference to agency or time.

Psalm 37.8 - "fret not, it leads only to evil doing." (hiphil inf. abs.)

b. The infinitive construct (const.) also functions as a gerund, but with a much wider range of application in areas of time and agency. The infinitive construct functions similarly to our English infinitive. Ps. 119.57 - "I have promised to keep ---"

B. Stem: Communicates the kind of action. Examples of the more common stems using the verb, love.

1. Qal stem (q.): Simple action taking place in an active voice. He loves.

Ps. 119.67-"before I was afflicted ( in affliction)" qal perfect - AnAh

2. Niphal stem (niph.): Simple action taking place in a passive voice. He is loved.

Ps. 119.107 - "I am exceedingly (adverb) afflicted" niph. perfect.

3. Hithpael stem (hithp.): Reflexive action which acts upon self. He loves himself

Dan. 10.12-"humbling (afflicting) yourself before God" hithpael inf.

4. Piel stem: Intensive action in the active voice. He loves (intensely) passionately.

Ps. 119.75, "in faithfulness you have afflicted me" piel perfect

5. Pual stem: Intensive action in the passive voice. He is loved passionately.

Ps. 119.71 - "good for me that I was afflicted." pual perfect

6. Hiphil stem: to cause action in the active voice. He caused me to love him.

Psalm 2.8 - "For you alone, O LORD, make to dwell in security."

1 Kings 8.35 - "And you cause them to be afflicted," hiphil imperfect

7. Hophal stem (hoph.): to cause action in the passive voice. I was caused to love.

Ex. 21.29-"and its owner shall be caused to die." put to death. hoph. imperfect

C. There are three tenses:

1. Perfect tense (perf.): this views the action as completed and past. Psalm 2.7- "He said to me."

Ps. 119.11 - "Your word I have treasured in my heart."

2. Imperfect tense (imperf.): This views the action as incomplete, currently going on or future.

Psalm 1.1 - "the man who does not walk ." Ps. 2.5 "Then he will speak to them."

a. The cohortative and jussive are variations of the imperfect tense and speak of desire or motivation to action.

b. The cohortative (cohort.) is used for the 1st person only: Psalm 2.3 - "Let us tear."

Psalm 9.14 - "So that I may tell --- I may rejoice."

c. The jussive (juss.) is used for the 2nd and 3rd person: Gen. 1.3 - "Let there be."

Gen. 47.4 - "let your servants live." (may your servants live)

3. The imperative (imp.): This is the simple command mode. Ps. 2.11 - worship and rejoice

Return to Letter category of your choice:


HEROD: The Great

1. Herod the Great was appointed as Tetrarch of Judea in 41 BC by Antony, and as King of Judea in 37 BC after he conquered Jerusalem.

2. Herod is not a personal name but a family name. The family participated in the political rulership of the Palestinian area from 78 BC to 100 AD.

A. The Herodian family was Idumean which was Edomite, descended from Esau.

B. The Idumeans were brought into Palestine about 130 BC by John Hyrcanus and they quickly embraced the Jewish religion.

C. So Herod was an Arab by race, but a Jew in religion.

3. He had nine wives and 15 children, but he treated his children so badly (having had several killed) that the emperor Augustus is known to have quipped, "It is better to be Herod's hog (hus) than to be Herod's son (huios)."

4. He was a financial genius, worth between $50-100 million.

A. He built over 100 huge buildings.
B. Financed the olympic games.
C. He went broke 3 times but always regained his fortune.

5. He was a political genius: ruled over an extensive empire almost as big as Solomon's in the Old Testament.

6. He was a military genius:

A. Had fortifications on the mountain ranges from Northern Syria to below Jerusalem.

B. He built 11 new forts, four around Jerusalem.

C. He had a system of signal-communications that was fantastic.

7. He was a great athlete, great hunter and was very hansom.

8. He reigned 33 years in Jerusalem, but was considered by the people to be a usurper of the throne of David, supported by the unpopular Romans.

9. In Mat. 2, he is about 60 and has less than 2 years to live.

10. His death:

At this time he was slowly going insane.

He had rapid mood changes and wide emotional swings.

He had delusions of persecution.

He had uncontrolled outbursts of anger.

He attempted suicide with an apple knife.

His heart and kidney had deteriorated.

Had an ulcerated mouth and foul breath.

He had constant stomach pains for last 3 years of his life.

He had constant diarrhea.

He died full of maggots.

Five days before his death he murdered his son Antipater.

Shortly before that he had 40 Pharisees killed who put the Star of

David on the Herodian temple. He "crawled" into the temple area

and ordered 40 Pharisees to be killed.

a. 5 to be shot with bow and arrow

b. some to be decapitated with an axe.

c. Several to be dropped into boiling oil.

d. Several were hung.

e. Others had slow torture on a rotisserie type device.

While on his death bed, he ordered that when he dies, all the leaders of the nation should be killed so there would be many people mourning at the same time of his death. It was not done.

Then of course, it was shortly before his death that he had a Roman army sent to Bethlehem to kill all the male children under 2 years of age in connection with the birth of Christ.

Herod died about 1 year after the birth of Christ at the end of March in 4 BC. It was several days after an eclipse of the moon which occurred on March 13, 4 BC.


HEZEKIAH: Historical background to 711 BC

1. The story must begin several years earlier in 738 BC. This is the first year of king Ahaz, the father of Hezekiah.

2. At this time, Hezekiah is 11 years old. There is a national crisis in the first year of his father's reign.

3. The Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Syria are allied and attacking Judah (2 Chron. 28:5-6).

4. The prophet Isaiah visits Ahaz and gives him divine viewpoint for personal and national stability (Is. 7:1-7).

A. The promise of national deliverance tied in with the promise of the Messiah.

B. Ahaz does not listen, but 11 year old Hezekiah listens and totally accepts Isaiah's message.

C. Hezekiah becomes a believer at this time and begins to cultivate divine truth in his life.

5. Ahaz not only rejects God's word (2 Chron. 28:22) through Isaiah, but totally misunderstands and misapplies it. He forms a political alliance with Assyria for protection
(2 Chron. 28:16; Is. 8:11-15; 2 K. 16:7-8).

6. Assyria deceives Ahaz and after putting the Northern Kingdom under the 5th cycle of discipline, administers the 4th cycle of discipline to Judah. 2 Chron. 28:20-21; Is. 7:17-20; 8:8 (736 -725 BC).

7. 14 years later, in 725 BC, Hezekiah becomes co-ruler with his father at the age of 25 and immediately begins promoting divine truth in the nation. The Hezekiah revival: 2 Chron. 29:1-11

8. Hezekiah is 25 years old in 725 BC and reigns for 29 years until 696 BC. 2 Kings 18:1-2; 2 Chron. 29:1

9. Hezekiah revival begins immediately: Hezekiah, year one.
2 Kings 18:3-8; 2 Chron 29:2-36 (the covenant of v. 29:10)

10. Part of the revival is to invite the Northern Kingdom to the Passover feast, but the nation as a whole refuses. Only a few come to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast. 2 Chron. 30:1-12 (V. 13-27)

11. Involved with the revival is mass rejection of idolatry. 2 Chron. 31:1

12. Part of the revival is rejection of Assyrian domination over the nation of Judah. 2 Kings 18:7

13. Shortly after Hezekiah's invitation to the Northern Kingdom and their rejection, Assyria administers the 5th cycle of discipline on the N. Kingdom. 2 Kings 18:9-12 (Hezekiah, year 4-6; 721 -719 BC)

14. Assyria does not invade Judah at this time because of divine protection during the Hezekiah revival, but he is making plans.

15. Sometime after year 6 of Hezekiah, the revival cools down and the people return to idolatry and a pseudo-worship of God. Is. 30:8-12.

16. Assyria begins preparations to invade Judah and God allows it in order to test Hezekiah. 2 Chron. 32:31

17. Hezekiah learns that Assyria plans to invade, but instead of trusting in God, he makes a military alliance with Egypt. 2 K. 18:21; Is. 30:1-7; 36:6.

18. Hezekiah, year 14 is 711 BC. Assyria invades the land.

A. 2 K. 18:13; 2 Ch. 32:1; Is. 36:1
B. First reaction: 2 K. 18:14-16 - apology plus gold to bribe Assyria away.

19. Sennacherib, the king of Assyria sets up his headquarters at Lachish which he is besieging. 2 K. 18;14, 17; Is. 36:2

20. Sennacherib takes the bribe but then continues the attack anyway by sending an army to Jerusalem. 2 Ch. 32:9-19; 2 K. 18:17-37; Is. 36:2-22.

21. When this happened, Hezekiah realized that his only hope was to trust God again. So he got back into fellowship, met with Isaiah the prophet and began proper military defenses.

A. Before the army comes: 2 Chron. 32:2-8
B. After the army comes: 2 K. 19:1-7; 2 Chron. 32:9-19; Is. 37:1-35.

22. The result is the destruction of the Assyrian army (probably located at Libnah at this time, based on Is. 37:8) by the Angel of Yahweh. Is. 37:36-37.

23. Sennacherib leaves Judah and goes home and Assyria does not bother Judah again until Esar Haddon re-administers the 4th cycle of discipline during the reign of Manasseh, 48 years later (673-672 BC).


HOLY SPIRIT: His person and work

1. The first mention at Gen. 1:2: The Spirit of elohiym (12 times).

A. Uniquely involved with creation as a life giving power source.

B. Thus, the word, "moving." (Hebrew = rAchabh, which means to hover or brood) See Deut. 32:11

C. Indicates very personal attentiveness as He participates in the creation process.

1. Isaiah 40:12-14, the Spirit of Yahweh
2. Psalm 33:6, by the breath (spirit) of His mouth
3. Jeremiah 27:5, by My great power
4. Job 33:4, involved with the creation of man

2. The second mention at Gen. 6:3 (1563 AH)

A. My Spirit = Spirit of Yahweh (occurs 23 times) and with the personal pronouns (His, My, Your) occurs many times.

B. This is a personal concern and pleading to move man in the right direction.
C. At 1 Pet. 3:18-20, it is identified as "the patience of God."

3. Overlap is demonstrated at 1 Sam. 10:

Verse 6 = Spirit of Yahweh
Verse 10 = Spirit of God (elohiym)

4. The Spirit of God as one of the three members of the Godhead. Isaiah 48:12-16

V. 16, "and now the Lord Yahweh has sent Me (The creator of v. 13) and His Spirit."

5. The Spirit of God then, is identified as an actual divine entity with personal attributes and actions.

A. Part of the "us" at Gen. 1:26.
B. Psalm 139:7, divine presence indicated by the Spirit
C. Psalm 143:10, The Spirit leads
D. Neh. 9:20, He is designated as Your good Spirit who teaches
E. Neh. 9:20, 30, The Spirit instructs and exhorts
F. Zech. 7:12, The Spirit is involved with the doctrine of inspiration.

"words, which Yahweh of the armies sent by His Spirit through the prophets."

G. 2 Sam. 23:1-4, "The Spirit of Yahweh spoke by me and His word was on my tongue."
H. Isaiah 63:14, The Spirit of Yahweh gives rest
I. Isaiah 63:10, they rebelled against and grieved the Spirit of His holiness.
J. Isaiah 63:11, God put the Spirit of His holiness in their MIDST.
K. Heb. 3:7 says that the author of Psalm 95 is the Holy Spirit.

6. There is a unique description of the Holy Spirit at Isaiah 11:2. There are 7 factors mentioned here that describe the Holy Spirit with emphasis on His ministry to the humanity of the Messiah, Jesus Christ, during His earthly ministry. The focus is on how the Spirit ministers to the soul through knowledge and the reflection of divine integrity in the life of Christ - and by application, in the life of the believer.
A. The Spirit of Yahweh: This identifies the Divine personality of the Holy Spirit as the title has indicated in its earlier uses throughout the Old Testament. See point 5 above.
B. The Spirit of wisdom and understanding.
    1. Wisdom: this is the word, chokmAh. This is the APPLICATION of knowledge and understanding in
         making decisions about any and every situation in life. Expression of wisdom makes the believer an
         efficient representative of God while here on earth.
         Understanding comes from knowledge. And wisdom comes from understanding.
    2. Understanding: This is the word, biynAh. This refers to comprehension of truth that goes beyond the
        simple academic knowledge of facts. At Ephesians 3:18-19, the goal of spiritual growth is to
        "comprehend . . . what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ
        which surpasses knowledge." UNDERSTANDING is a functional knowledge of what the plan of
        God is all about; the real issues between light and darkness that comes FROM knowledge (facts;
        points of truth). Understanding is the basis for having WISDOM.

C. The Spirit of counsel and strength.
    1. Counsel: This is the word, ātsAh. It
refers to advice or guiding wisdom.
        a. The provision from wisdom: Proverbs 8:14 compared with verses 1:25, 30.
        b. Psalm 73:21-24
        c. The nature of Divine counsel - Isaiah 28:29
        d. Counsel refers to the DIVINE VIEWPOINT concerning everything in life.
        e. Compare with human viewpoint: Proverbs 19:21 and Job 38:2
        f. Counsel is the divine viewpoint advice that comes from understanding and wisdom.

    2. Strength: This is the word, gebhurAh. It refers to INNER strength of character.
        It indicates nobility of character and integrity. This is what is produced in the soul of the believer
        through success in spiritual growth. This is the presence of beneficent love that INFLUENCES the
        soul for the application of divine truth in opposition to the influence of the sin nature.

D. The Spirit of knowledge and the fear of Yahweh.
    1. Knowledge: This is the word, daath. This refers to the factual details of God's character and plan.
        These truths are learned from the Bible only. Knowledge must be volitionally accepted and believed,
        in order for the truths of knowledge to produce UNDERSTANDING and WISDOM and eventually
    2. Fear of Yahweh: This refers to the attitude of humility that recognizes that the authority, viewpoint and
        policy of God has total jurisdiction of the universe and my life. Basic humility toward God (The fear of
        the Lord) is the basis for seeking and accepting the knowledge of God (Prov. 1:7).
        "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge," (daath).
        Continued humility toward God is then the basis for APPLICATION of knowledge in order to
        express understanding and wisdom for the avoidance of sin (Prov. 16:6; Ps. 119:11).
     See Topic: 

7. His Holy Spirit which occurs only 3 times should actually read, The Spirit of His/Your holiness.

A. Holiness = qAdosh which means holiness, uniqueness, essence
B. It is the Spirit who reflects His holiness, uniqueness, essence.
C. Primarily in the area of divine power.
D. This explains the invisibility factor of the Spirit's activity.
E. Power cannot be "seen." It is felt and experienced. Its effect is what is seen.
F. This term (Holy Spirit) then becomes the official "title" for the Spirit as we come to the New Testament where it occurs 89 times.

1. Holy Spirit of God = 1 times
2. Spirit of holiness = 1 time

8. The other designations for the Divine Spirit are as follows.

A. Spirit of God = 12 times
B. His Spirit = 3 times
C. My Spirit = 3 times
D. Spirit of Christ = 2 times
E. The Spirit of your Father = 1 time
F. The Spirit of the Lord = 4 times
G. The Spirit of Jesus = 1 time
H. The Spirit of Jesus Christ = 1 time
I. The Spirit of truth = 3 times
J. The Spirit of grace = 1 time
K. The Spirit of glory = 1 time
L. The Spirit of our God = 1 time
M. The Spirit = about 116 times


9. Further New Testament revelation

A. The first mention picks up from the Old Testament about the empowering presence of the Spirit.

1. John the baptizer: Luke 1:35
2. Conception of Jesus: Luke 1:35
3. Elizabeth: Luke 1:41
4. Zachariah: Luke 1:67
5. Simeon: Luke 2:26-27
6. The Messiah: Luke 3:22; 4:1


B. The Spirit is identified as a "functional" personality.

1. Object of blasphemy: Mat. 12:31
2. He communicates: Luke 2:26; 12:12; Acts 8:29; 14:19; 11:12
3. He gives life: John 6:63
4. He can be lied to: Acts 5:3
5. He can be tested: Acts 5:9
6. He can be resisted: Acts 7:51
7. He can perform physical action: Acts 8:39
8. He has desire: Acts 17:28
9. He can prevent action of people: Acts 16:67
10. He administrates the gifts: Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 12:4-11
11. He raises the dead: Rom. 8:11
12. He leads: Rom. 8:14; Gal. 5:16-18
13. He intercedes (prays) for the believer: Rom. 8:26
14. He sanctifies the believer: Rom. 15:16
15. He baptizes the believer into Christ: 1 Cor. 12:13
16. He can be grieved: Eph. 4:30
17. He can be insulted: Heb. 10:29
18. He is the believer's teacher: John 16:13-15; 1 Cor. 2:10-12
19. He washes, sanctifies and justifies: 1 Cor. 6:11
20. He speaks a personal invitation to people to "come." Rev. 22:17

C. The personal pronouns of the Spirit.

1. The word spirit is "pneuma" in the Greek, which is a neuter noun (it) and any personal pronouns used in association with it would also be neuter.

2. However, on several occasions, the personal pronoun used in connection with the Spirit of God is very clearly "masculine" which indicates the intent to view the Spirit as a "He," that is a personality rather than an "it" or a "thing."

3. John 14:26, The Holy Spirit . . . He (that one = masculine pronoun).
4. John 15:26, The Spirit of truth . . . He (that one = masc. pronoun).
5. John 16:13, But when He (that one = masc. pronoun) the Spirit of truth comes
6. John 16:14, He (that one) shall glorify me

D. The Holy Spirit is called God:

1. Acts 5:3,4: lied to the Holy Spirit; lied to God
2. 2 Cor. 3:17, The Lord is the Spirit
3. Acts 8:25-27 and Isaiah 6:8-10: The Holy Spirit spoke; the Lord spoke.
4. Heb. 10:15-17 and Jer. 31:31-34: The Holy Spirit spoke; the Lord spoke.
5. 2Cor. 6:16, 17 & 1 Cor. 6:19-20: your body is the temple of God/Holy Spirit.

E. The Spirit possesses Divine attributes:

1. Eternal: Heb. 9:14, The Eternal Spirit
2. Omnipresent: Psalm 139:7-10; 1 Cor. 6:19
3. Omniscient: 1 Cor. 2:10-11; John 16:13
4. Good: Neh. 9:20; Ps. 153:10
5. Truth: John 14:17; 16:13; 1 John 5:7
6. Sovereign: 1 Cor. 12:11, Just as the Spirit wills.

F. The Spirit is distinct in association with the other members of the Godhead.

1. Mat. 28:19
2. 1 Cor. 12:4-6
3. 2 Cor. 1:21-22
4. 2 Cor. 13:14
5. Eph. 4:4-6
6. Titus 3:4-6
7. 1 Pet. 1:2
8. Jude 20-21
9. Rev. 1:4-5
10. Mat. 3:16, 17


10. Special ministries of the Holy Spirit

A. Before salvation: Convicting. John 16:911; Gen. 6:3

B. AT Salvation:

1. Regeneration: John 3:5, Titus 3:5-6;
2. Indwelling: Rom. 8:9; 1 Cor. 6:19-20
3. Baptism into Christ/sanctification: 1 Cor. 12:13; 1 Cor. 6:11;
4. Justification: 1 Cor. 6:11
5. Sealing: Eph. 1:13-14; 2 Cor. 1:21-22
6. Impartation of a spiritual gift: 1 Cor. 12:4-11; 1 Pet. 4:10
7. Filling: Principle of forgiveness of sins = the Spirit in control.

C. After salvation:

1. Filling: Eph. 5:18; Gal. 5:16
2. Teaching: John 16:12-15; 1 Cor. 2:10-16
3. prayer intercession: Romans 8:26
4. character reflection: Gal. 5:22-23; 2 Cor. 3:18
5. Administrates the spiritual gift: 1 Cor. 12:4-11; 1 Peter 4:11

D. At the rapture, He will accomplish resurrection. Romans 8:11


HOLY SPIRIT: Indwelling

1. The Holy Spirit indwells the soul of every church age believer, and the body of that believer becomes the temple of the Holy Spirit. 2 Cor. 1.22; 1 Cor. 3.16; 6.19-20

2. This takes place at the moment of salvation.

Rm. 8.9; Gal. 3.2-3, 13-14; 4.6; 1 Cor.12.12; 12.13;

3. The indwelling of the Spirit is permanent for church age believers. Jn. 14.16-17; Rm. 8.9

4. Believers in the old testament did not have the indwelling of the Spirit. Jn. 7.39

A. The H.S. came upon certain believers for specific functions, and could be (and in fact was) removed/restored at the sovereign discretion of God.
A. Ex. 35.30-35 - the builders B. Num. 11.16-17, 24-29 - the 70 elders C. Num. 24.2 - Balaam D. Num. 27.15-23 - Joshua E. Judges 3.9-10 - Othniel F. Judges 6.33-35 - Gideon G. Judges 11.29 - Jephthah H. Judges 14.5-6, 19; 15.14-15- Samson (came and went several times) I. 1 Sam. 10.6-11 - King Saul J. 1 Sam. 16.13-14 (Ps. 51:11) - David K. 1 Peter 1:11 (and many others).

B. The Holy Spirit came and went according to His own sovereignty. A. Samson: Judges 14.5-6, 19; 15.14-15 B. The Spirit left Saul: 1 Sam. 16.14 C. David asked that the Spirit not be taken away: Ps. 51.11 D. One could ask for the Spirit: 2 Kings 2.9-14.

C. Even during the events of Messiah's birth (which is still in an Old Testament context, we see some believers who were "empowered" by the Spirit. A. Mary: Luke 1.35 B. Elizabeth: Luke 1.41 C. Zacharias: Luke 1.67 D. Simeon: Luke 2.25-27 E. John the baptizer: Luke 1.15

D. But the body of any believer who had this empowering of the Spirit was not the temple of the Spirit.

5. Dispensational correlation: 1 Sam. 16.13-14; Ps. 51.11; 2 Kings 2.9-10;
Lk. 11.13; Jn. 20.22; Acts 1.4-5

6. Prophecy of the indwelling:
In the Old Testament, we find many predictions that when the Messiah comes, there will be a "universal" outpouring of the Spirit on God's people. When each of these is analyzed in context, the conclusion is that the predictions are referring to Messiah's physical kingdom on the earth, which we designate as the millennium. A. Is. 32.15; 44.3; 59.21; Ezk. 36.27; 37.14; 39.29; Zech. 12.10; Joel 2.21-29. B. These prophecies do not refer to what Jesus promised would happen on the day of Pentecost. C. Including Joel 2.28-29: Peter quotes this at Acts 2, after the Holy Spirit has come upon the believers at Pentecost, to use it as an example of what had just happened. D. This is determined by realizing that the even referenced in the quote from Joel, occurs AFTER the Day of the Lord comes. Neither the "signs" of the Day of the Lord (signs in the sun, moon and stars) nor the actual arrival of the Day of the Lord occurred at Pentecost in 30 AD, nor have yet occurred as of this writing. E. Peter only quotes it to show the onlookers that what they had mistaken to be drunkenness was indeed a spiritual phenomenon which could easily be understood from the Old Testament Scriptures. And the reason he quotes it "in context," that is, mentioning the signs is to make certain that the objective "hearer" will understand that he is not claiming fulfillment of Joel, but using it as an example.

When John the Baptizer came on the scene, part of his message was that the coming Messiah would administer a "giving" of the Holy Spirit that was called, "Baptize you with the Spirit," (Mt. 3:11-12). The phrase, "and with fire," is often associated with the baptism of the Spirit, but the context indicates otherwise. John is speaking of two different events.
A. Baptized with the Spirit will be fulfilled after Messiah's resurrection.
B. Baptized with fire will be fulfilled when Messiah returns in judgment. This is determined by verse 12, which speaks of "burning" those who will be judged by God. It should be obvious that such a judgment which is described here and is clearly represented by the word, fire, did not occur at any time during the Messiah's first advent ministry. And yet we find an abundance of passages indicating that when Messiah returns, He will most certainly administer the "fire" of His justice in judging "those who do not know God, even those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus," (2 Thes. 1:8).

C. It is also explained by the Parable of the Tares (Mat. 13:40). "Therefore, just as the tares are gathered up and burned with fire, so shall it be at the end of the age."
D. The issue to be determined: Is this prophecy of the coming Spirit, the SAME coming of the Spirit that is prophesied by Jesus, and the SAME coming of the Spirit that is referenced in Acts and Paul? A thorough comparison of Scripture will show us that they are ONE AND THE SAME.

Jesus also taught about a unique coming of the Spirit which would be totally different from the Spirit's ministry in the Old Testament.
A. Jn. 7.38, "He who believes in me, as the scripture said, from his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water."
v. 39, "But this he spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was NOT YET GIVEN, because Jesus was not yet GLORIFIED (resurrected)."
B. So we see that there will be a "special" giving or coming of the Spirit which must be viewed as different from what we have seen in the Old Testament.

C. John 14.16, "And I will ask the Father, and He will give you another helper, that He may with you FOREVER."
Verse 17, "that is the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive because it does not behold Him or know Him, but you know Him because He abides WITH YOU, and WILL BE IN YOU."
1. with you does not refer to the OT empowering because they did not have it. It refers to the universal presence of the Spirit as omnipresent (Ps. 139.7)
2. IN YOU refers to what will happen after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus.

D. Jn. 16.7, "but I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper shall not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you."

E. Furthermore, this "coming" of the Spirit is the very same "baptism" of the Spirit that John said the Messiah would provide.

7. When Jesus was with the disciples He tried to get them to ask for the presence of the Spirit. Luke 11.9-13
A. This was in accordance with the Spirit's "empowering" ministry as with Old Testament believers.
B. They never did ask for this presence of the Spirit, and finally, during His resurrection ministry, Jesus just up and gave to them the presence of the Spirit. Jn. 20.22
C. But this presence was not what was promised at Mt.3.11 & Jn. 7.39 (It was the same thing provided for Old Testament believers).
D. This is determined because Jesus STILL tells them to wait in Jerusalem for the "promise of the Spirit. Acts 1:3-5; Luke 24:49.

E. New Testament prophecies relate only to the church age, but are a foretaste of the new covenant to Israel.

7. What happened at Pentecost in AD 30?
A. Jesus told them to wait in Jerusalem. Acts 2:4-5
1. For the promise of the Father: This is exactly what Jesus had taught about for He then says, "which you heard of from me." So, the coming of the Spirit at Pentecost is the fulfillment of what Jesus said would happen when He was glorified.
2. Furthermore, Jesus makes a direct connection to the prediction that John the Baptizer made. Acts 2:5, "For John baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Spirit not many days from now."
3. This PROVES that what John talked about and what Jesus talked about and what happened at Pentecost - ARE THE SAME THING.
4. Both John and Jesus use the term "baptism" in association with the ONE AND SAME coming of the Spirit to indwell the church.
5. Thus, both the "indwelling" of the Spirit in the believers AND the baptism of the Spirit refers to the same thing.

B. The fulfillment of the promise.
1. The Holy Spirit came to be IN THEM. Jn. 14.17
2. Forever: Jn. 14.15
3. They were baptized with the Spirit: but what does this mean?
a. Is it with (as in, by means of) the Spirit?
b. Or is it baptized into the Spirit?

4. The answer is found at 1 Cor. 12.13, "For BY one Spirit we were all baptized INTO one body - - - and we were all made to drink of one Spirit." Two things then.
a. Baptized BY MEANS of the Spirit - into the body of Christ. This refers to our positional union with Christ where there is no Jew/Gentile; bond/free; male/female
b. And it also involves the indwelling presence of the Spirit with the result that we all drink of (as in receive) one Spirit. This image of "drinking" takes us back to John 7:37-39 where we learn that after someone "comes and drinks" by trusting in Christ as savior, that there will result within him, "rivers of living water." And what do we do when these "rivers" are manifested? WE DRINK. 5. See also Gal. 3.27, "For all of you who were baptized INTO Christ, have clothed yourselves with Christ." How were we baptized INTO Christ? BY the Holy Spirit when He came to indwell us.

7. Transitional indwelling during the first 15-20 years of the church age to establish the change from Israel as the priestly agent, to the church as the priestly agent.

A. The Jewish focus: Acts 2.1-11, 33-initial arrival

(after salvation; no human agency)

B. The Samaritan focus: Acts 8.14-17 (after salvation with a human agency for the baptism of the Spirit).

C. The Gentile focus: Acts 10.34-48; 11.12-17 (no human agency; it occurred at the moment of salvation, ie, the moment they believed)

D. The transitional focus:

Acts 19.1-7 (after salvation with a human agency

1. V. 2 - when you believed - indicates that the pattern for the church age had been established.

2. This is the year c. 56 AD and by this time, all believers were expected to have received the Spirit at the moment of salvation.

3. That's why Paul says to the Romans at V. 8:9, in the year c.58 AD, that if one does not have the Spirit, he does not belong to God, ie, not a believer.

4. And indicates to the Galatians in the same year at v. 3.2-3, 13-14, that the Spirit is received at the moment of salvation.

8. The purpose of the indwelling Holy Spirit:

A. To seal the believer in Christ: Eph.1.13-14; 2 Cor.1.22; 5.5

B. To teach the believer the word of God.

Jn. 14.26; 16.12-15; 1 Cor 2.9-16; 1 Jn.2.27

C. To provide witnessing power: Acts 1.8

D. To produce the character of Christ in the believer's life: 2 Cor. 3.18; Gal. 5.22-23

E. To provide evidence to our soul that we are children of God. Gal. 4.6; Rm. 8.15-16

F. To please God and glorify Christ in every area of life:

Rom. 8.1-8; 14.17-18; Jn. 16.14

G. So basically, to be the agent of the new covenant blessings to the church.

9. The believer's responsibility because of the indwelling Spirit.

A. 1 Cor. 6.19-20 - therefore, glorify God in your body.

B. Gal. 5.25 - if we live in the Spirit (indwelling), let us also walk in the Spirit.

C. Quench not the Spirit: 1 Thes. 5.19 (this is done through personal sin)

D. Be filled with the Spirit: Ephesians 5.18 (allow his control in your life through sinless consistency)


Holy Spirit: Baptism and filling

1. The Holy Spirit came upon certain believers for specific jobs throughout the Old Testament period. This can be designated as the EMPOWERING ministry of the Spirit.

This is not the H.S. indwelling them, but is a ministry to them and upon them.

A. Ex. 35.30-35 - the builders

B. Num. 11.16-17, 24-29 - the 70 elders

C. Num. 24.2 - Balaam

D. Num. 27.15-23 - Joshua

E. Judges 3.9-10 - Othniel

F. Judges 6.33-35 - Gideon

G. Judges 11.29 - Jephthah

H. Judges 14.5-6, 19; 15.14-15- Samson (came and went several times)

I. 1 Sam. 10.6-11 - King Saul

J. 1 Sam. 16.13 - David

(and many others)

2. Even during the events of Messiah's birth (which is still in an Old Testament context) we see some believers who were "empowered" by the Spirit.

A. Mary: Luke 1.35

B. Elizabeth: Luke 1.41

C. Zacharias: Luke 1.67

D. Simeon: Luke 2.25-27

E. John the baptizer: Luke 1.15

3. The Holy Spirit came and went according to His own sovereignty.

A. Samson: Judges 14.5-6, 19; 15.14-15

B. The Spirit left Saul: 1 Sam. 16.14

C. David asked that the Spirit not be taken away: Ps. 51.11

D. One could ask for the Spirit: 2 Kings 2.9-14

E. Principle of Luke 11.13 (Old Testament context- prior to the resurrection)

4. John's message is that Jesus would baptize with the Spirit and with fire. Mt. 3.11-12 - two different events.

A. With the Spirit will be fulfilled after Messiah's resurrection.

B. With fire will be fulfilled when Messiah returns in judgment-v. 12.

C. But what does "with" mean? Into or by means of? (later)

5. Jesus taught about a unique coming of the Spirit which would be totally different from the Spirit's ministry in the Old Testament.

A. Jn. 7.38, "He who believes in me, as the scripture said, from his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water."

v. 39, "But this he spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was NOT YET GIVEN, because Jesus was not yet GLORIFIED (resurrected)."

B. So we see that there will be a "special" giving or coming of the Spirit which must be viewed as different from what we have seen in the Old Testament.

C. John 14.16, "And I will ask the Father, and He will give you another helper, that He may with you FOREVER."

v. 17, "that is the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive because it does not behold Him or know Him, but you know Him because He abides WITH YOU, and WILL BE IN YOU."

1. with you does not refer to the Old Testament empowering because they did not have it. It refers to the universal presence of the Spirit as omnipresent (Ps. 139.7)

2. IN YOU refers to what will happen after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus.

D. Jn. 16.7, "but I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper shall not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you."

6. When Jesus was with the disciples He tried to get them to ask for the presence of the Spirit. Luke 11.9-13

A. This was in accordance with the Spirit's "empowering" ministry as with Old Testament believers.

B. They never did ask for this presence of the Spirit, and finally, during His resurrection ministry, Jesus just up and gave to them the presence of the Spirit. Jn. 20.22

C. But this presence was not what was promised at Mt.3.11 and Jn. 7.39.

(It was the same thing provided for Old Testament believers)

D. The promise would not be fulfilled until the day of Pentecost -Acts 1.4-5

7. Also, throughout the Old Testament we see prophecies of a coming of the Spirit upon God's people.

Is. 32.15; 44.3; 59.21; Ezk. 36.27; 37.14; 39.29; Zech. 12.10; Joel 2.21-29.

A. But this will not be fulfilled until the Messiah sets up His kingdom on the earth after the great tribulation.

B. These prophecies do not refer to what Jesus promised would happen on the day of Pentecost.

C. Including Joel 2.28-29: Peter quotes this at Acts 2, after the Holy Spirit has come upon the believers at Pentecost, to use it as an example of what had just happened.

D. If one studies the context of Joel carefully, it will be seen that this mention of the Spirit's coming takes place after the Day of the Lord - which is Messiah's 2nd coming.

E. And before that Day of the Lord there will be the signs in the sun and moon, etc. - which Peter also quoted.

F. But those signs did not occur at Pentecost did they? They are yet future - as is the coming of the Spirit mentioned by Joel and quoted by Peter.

G. Peter only quotes it to show the onlookers that what they had mistaken to be drunkenness was indeed a spiritual phenomenon which could easily be understood from the Old Testament scriptures.

H. And the reason he quotes it "in context," that is, mentioning the signs, is to make certain that the objective "hearer" will understand that he is not claiming fulfillment of Joel, but using it as an example.

8. Now what is it that happened at Pentecost in AD 30?

A. It was the fulfillment of the promise.

1. the Holy Spirit came to be IN THEM. Jn. 14.17

2. forever: Jn. 14.15

3. They were baptized with the Spirit: but what does this mean?

a. Is it with (as in, by means of) the Spirit?

b. Or is it baptized into the Spirit?

4. The answer is found at 1 Cor. 12.13, "For BY one Spirit we were all baptized INTO one body - - -and we were all made to drink of one Spirit." Two things then.

a. baptized BY MEANS of the Spirit - into the body of Christ.

This refers to our positional union with Christ where there is no Jew/Gentile; bond/free; male/female

b. and it also involves the indwelling presence of the Spirit with the result that we all drink of (as in receive) one Spirit.

5. See also Gal. 3.27, "For all of you who were baptized INTO Christ, have clothed yourselves with Christ."

How were we baptized INTO Christ? BY the Holy Spirit when He came to indwell us.

B. The spiritual gift of tongues was manifested: Now this is a little bit of a different subject. Tongues is not "directly" related to the baptism of the Spirit. Tongues occurred for a separate and distinct reason. Its purpose was as a supernatural SIGN prophesied in the old testament, to announce to the nation of Israel that the nation was being set aside by God and replaced by a new "spiritual" body, ie, the church.

1. The message of tongues was - -

a. believe in Christ and become a part of the new body.

b. or reject Christ and be judged by God in association with the rejected nation of Israel.

2. The gift of tongues was used by God ONLY for the unbelieving Jews of the nation of Israel. 1 Cor. 14.20-22

9. The Holy Spirit was provided by God for ALL believers. (Jn. 7.38-39)

But not all believers (alive at the time) were present at Pentecost.

A. Thus, subsequent to Pentecost, God would need to administrate the indwelling presence of the Spirit to various believers as they were encountered.

B. In the meantime, what happened with "new" believers and the giving of the Spirit?

C. Acts 8.5-17: the situation with the Samaritans required a "formal" administration of the Spirit because of their Jewish heritage.

v. 12, we have a group of people who become believers and then undergo water baptism.

v.14-17 - a formal administration of the baptism of the Spirit BY the apostles.

1. This was only administrated by the apostles as they were the foundation layers of the church.

2. The laying on of hands for this was only a temporary policy and was only administrated by the apostles.

3. Simon just misunderstood the significance of the ritual and was more interested in power and attention anyway.

D. Acts 10.44-48 - The pattern for the rest of the church age is established.

v. 44, "while Peter was still speaking - - -"

1. He was still giving his evangelistic message when the people who were listening - trusted Christ in the privacy of their own souls, ie, believed and were saved.

2. At the very moment that they believed, God the Holy Spirit indwelled them and baptized them into the body of Christ.

3. This was evidenced by the gift of tongues in this instance because of the presence of many Jewish nationalists who needed to hear the message according to the prophesied sign.

4. The pattern that was established, was that at the moment that one believes, he is indwelled by the Spirit and baptized BY the Spirit into union with Christ.

5. The summary at Acts 11:14-17
"And he shall speak words to you by which you will be saved, you and all your household. And as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell upon them, just as {He did} upon us at the beginning. And I remembered the word of the Lord, how He used to say, 'John baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.' If God therefore gave to them the same gift as {He gave} to us also after believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I that I could stand in God's way?"
A. It is exactly the same thing that happened at Pentecost.
B. And - it happened immediately WHEN they believed. In fact, Peter was not even done speaking, when they accepted Christ in their soul and immediately the Spirit indwelled them. Immediately they were baptized BY the Spirit and placed into the body of Christ at that time. C. The pattern was here established that at the instant that someone trusts in Christ as savior, the Holy Spirit comes in and at the same instant "baptizes" that person into the body of Christ. It is baptism BY the Spirit, not IN the Spirit.
D. Accordingly, from now on, all that is taught about the indwelling and baptism of the Spirit is viewed as a COMPLETED act that occurred for all those who have trusted in Christ. 2 Cor. 1.22, "Who also sealed us and (even) gave us the Spirit in our hearts as a down payment." When - - at the moment of salvation. 1 Cor. 3.16, "Do you not know that you are a temple of God and that that the Spirit of God dwells in you?" 1 Cor. 6.19, "Or do you not know that your body a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you," When did it happen - at the moment of salvation. 1 Cor. 2.12, "Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God,"

When did "we" receive this Spirit who is from God - at the moment of salvation. Romans 8.9, "But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him."

EVERY BELIEVER has the Spirit of Christ because they received the Spirit at the moment of salvation. Gal. 3.2-3, "Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the message of faith? Are you so foolish, having BEGUN with the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the
flesh?" And WHEN did they receive the Spirit "by the message of faith?" It was at that moment of time that they believed the message of faith. Now there is no place anywhere in the New Testament that even hints there is another or a different "presence" of the Holy Spirit for the believer. There is no basis for referring to the baptism of the Spirit as anything other than what happens at the moment of salvation.

E. That is why there was no formal administration of the baptism in this situation and why there is no other recorded incident of it happening in the entire NT - - - except - -

F. Acts 19.1-7 - a group of people who became believers under John the baptizer's ministry and were not aware of the fulfilled promise which took place at Pentecost 25 years earlier. (This is about 56 AD)

1. v. 2, the question - very important. "did you receive the Holy Spirit WHEN you believed?"

2. this is the "pattern" which had been established. If they were recent converts, they would have received the Spirit WHEN they believed.

3. but they were not recent believers, and had not been given the Holy Spirit yet.

4. Thus, the formal administration of the Spirit BY an apostle.

5. And tongues took place to again fulfill its "sign" purpose.

G. Once the pattern is clearly established, Paul can write to the Romans in AD 58, v. 8.9, "But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him."

H. And to the Corinthians in AD 58, v. 12.13, "For by one Spirit we were ALL baptized into one body - - - and we were ALL made to drink of one Spirit."

I. It should be clear that once the apostles pass off the scene (and actually, long before) everyone receives the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit and the baptism of the H.S. at the very moment of time that he trusts in Christ as savior.

J. there is no "receiving" of the Spirit or being baptized "in" the Spirit after the point of salvation.

10. And that brings us to the "filling of the Spirit."

A. To be filled with the Spirit means to allow Him to lead and control your life. He can only do this when there is NO un-confessed sin in the life.

B. any act of personal sin (mental, verbal or overt) breaks our fellowship with God. (It does not break our relationship)

C. Personal sin also grieves the Holy Spirit who, as God, hates sin; and quenches the Spirit's leading control over the believer's life.

D. When the Holy Spirit enters the "heart" (1 Cor. 1.22) of the one who has just trusted in Christ as savior, the soul has been cleansed from all sins through the redemption which is in Christ.

E. Thus, the believer begins his Christian life "in fellowship" with no sin to hinder his walk with God and the control of the Spirit.

F. but shortly after salvation, a sin will occur which will grieve and quench the Spirit's control, putting the believer under the control of the sin nature which is still present in his body.

G. This breaks fellowship with God, and the ONLY way to be restored to fellowship is to confess the sin or sins to THE FATHER via 1 John 1.9, "If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness."

H. Confession of sin means to "acknowledge" the sin to God and agree with God about it. Thus it is an attitude of total rejection of that sin and a recognition of the Father's justice.

I. Such "confession" of the sin immediately restores the filling control of the Spirit and takes us out from under the control of the sin nature (although that sin nature will still tempt us).

J. The new believer will continually be plagued by many sins until he learns more and more of God's word which will give him an inner soul defense against temptation.

Ps. 119.11, "your word I have stockpiled in my heart, so that I might not sin against you."

K. The resource of God's word, learned and used in the believer's life is the "way of escape" God has provided for us. 1 Cor. 10.13.

But we must learn and use that Word in order to utilize the way of escape.

L. the following commands exhort the believer to allow the Spirit to maintain His leading (filling) control,

1. Be filled with the Spirit: Eph. 5.18

2. Walk in the Spirit: Gal. 5.16

But we must realize that these are only fulfilled through

a. not sinning -

b. and confessing the sin immediately when you do sin.

3. We are not to "ask to be filled" with the Spirit. We are to allow the Spirit to lead us by not grieving or quenching Him.

M. Gal. 5.25 recognizes the difference between possessing the indwelling Spirit (living in the Spirit) and walking in the Spirit, "Since we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit."


HOLY SPIRIT: Sealing Ministry

1. References: Ephesians 1:13-14; Ephesians 4:30; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5

2. Ephesian 1:13, the THREE steps of salvation. Each of the following three steps are verbs in the aorist tense, which is used to indicate a moment of time occurrence of the events in view..

A. Hearing the gospel: "After hearing the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation." This is an aorist active participle of the verb, akouo, and indicates the action in view occurs before the action of the main verb. Even Romans 10:14-17 indicates that one must hear the gospel message before he can believe in Christ.

B. Believing the gospel: "in Whom also having believed." This is also an aorist active participle, but of pisteuo, and again it indicates that this action occurs before the action of the main verb.
The verb, pisteuo refers to total trust in Christ as Savior.

C. Sealed by the Holy Spirit: "You were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise." The verb here is sphragidzo, and occurs as an aorist passive indicative, which indicates it to be the main verb.
Furthermore, the passive voice indicates that someone else did the action to the subject, and that this action follows upon the two previous actions represented by the aorist participles.

D. The phrase, "of promise" indicates a fulfillment of what Jesus taught during His earthly ministry (John 7:38-39; 14:16-17).
And even after His resurrection (Acts 1:8).

See Topic: HOLY SPIRIT: Indwelling for more details.

3. What is a seal?

A. It verifies or authenticates: John 3:33; 6:27; Romans 8:16; Galatians 4:6
B. It indicates ownership: 2 Timothy 2:19
C. It protects and preserves: 1 Peter 1:5; Revelation 7:2-3
D. It guarantees or promises: Ephesians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:24

4. The sealing ministry of the Holy Spirit is a guarantee or pledge. Ephesians 1:14

A. Who is a pledge: the word WHO, goes back to the Holy Spirit mentioned in verse 13.

B. the word, pledge, is arrabOn, and means a deposit, a pledge, a token of intent.

C. Of our inheritance: This refers to the eternal phase of our salvation, and is described at 1 Peter 1:4-5 in reference to the resurrection body that all believers will receive (Philippians 3:21).

D. Unto the redemption: The word redemption is apolutrOsis, and means a release through payment, redemption or setting free. The seal remains in place UNTIL the acquired property is fully in the possession of its owner.
It is the resurrection of the body that completes the transaction.
At Romans 8:23, this completion is called the redemption of the body.

E. The word UNTO, is eis and indicates goal or purpose. The seal is the mark of possession and ownership - to protect it from any and all things that threaten the owner's final acquisition. At Ephesians 4:30, we find that "we have been sealed unto the day of redemption." Thus, protected until the resurrection body is acquired.

F. of the possession: This word is peripoiāsis and means the property that someone acquired and that now belongs to that person. The word means a circle that is made around something that marks it out as owned by the one who makes the circle.

1. It is used at 1 Peter 2:9 to refer to the church, as "a possessed (owned) people."

2. The verb is used at Acts 20:28, "the church of God which He ACQUIRED with the blood of His own."

G. This RELEASE takes place through resurrection, when all believers at that time (living and dead) will be transformed into a body exactly like the body of Christ's glory (Philippians 3:21).

H. Unto the praise of His glory: All is for the glory of God the Father.

5. It is actually the very presence of the Holy Spirit dwelling in the heart that functions as the SEAL of God's ownership and protection. 2 Corinthians 1:22, "Spirit in our hearts as a pledge."

6. The sealing of the Holy Spirit then, by very definition is the key factor for understanding the salvation security of the believer. Romans 8:9, "if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to him (lit: he is none of His)."

7. The seal of God, which is the presence of the Holy Spirit is the promise that God will keep His word concerning the promise of salvation. Thus, it is God who not only saves the one who believes, in the first place, but it is God who KEEPS the believer secure. One is not saved by works and one is not kept by works.

See topic: SALVATION SECURITY for details.

8. Illustration via the diagram of the cross and two circles.

HOLY SPIRIT: Teaching ministry

1. The TEACHING ministry of the Holy Spirit refers to His activity of aiding the believer in the understanding of God's word. This is not the same as the REVELATION ministry of the Spirit, for that is the direct impartation of divine viewpoint information into the soul of the recipient through the activity known as divine inspiration, with the result that the recipient speaks or writes the very thoughts of God.

See Topic: Inspiration of the Bible

Nor is it the same as the CONVICTING ministry of the Spirit which is direct, and not dependent on volitional attentiveness.

A. The Holy Spirit convicts the unbeliever of his need for the savior. John 16:8-11

B. He also convicts the erring believer of his need for recovery.

2. This activity of divine assistance for learning God's word is not found in the Old Testament, but is new and unique to the church age.

A. Prior to the church age, the believer learned God's word through volitional exposure.

B. It required the humility attitude of teachability that depended on God for instruction.

Psalm 25:4-5 (verses 8-12)

Make me know Your ways, O Yahweh;
Teach me Your paths.
Lead me in Your truth and teach me.

C. However, God's INSTRUCTION was through the provision of a teacher rather than through direct assistance in the area of perception. There is plenty of evidence in the Old Testament for divine inspiration with certain individuals, but none for the activity that is described in the New Testament, where the Spirit is actually instrumental in the perception of certain categories of divine truth.

The book of Proverbs is the key source for the process of spiritual growth in Old Testament times, and everywhere we see emphasized, the volitional responsibility of the believer to personally access and respond to the teachers provided by God, whether they be one's parents, the priests or the prophets (Proverbs 2:1-11; 4:1-2; 8:1-11).

3. Jesus taught about the future reality of the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit prior to the upper room discourse (John 7:37-39), but not until that time, did He tell the disciples about this new and unique teaching ministry of the Spirit.

There are two factors involved with the teaching ministry of the Spirit.

1. First, there is the REVELATION activity of bringing new information and reminder information to the disciples. This is taught at John 14:26, and should not be applied universally to all believers, but only to the disciples.

"He will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you."

Also at John 16:13-15

a. The Spirit of Truth: This is a title to indicate not only His inherent divine character (truth), but also the character of the knowledge that he reveals to the believer. "He will Guide you into all truth" hodegeo (future active indicative)

b. He will take my things which are the things of the Father.

1. lambano - future middle indicative
2. The words I have spoken to you are spirit and life. John 6:63

c. And disclose: future active indicative of anangello, which means to proclaim or announce.

d. The things to come: verse 13, present middle participle of erchomai - The things that are coming.
This is a reference to new viewpoint based on Messiah's first-advent success, and the resultant intensification of the angelic conflict, and the formation of the new priestly body - the church, as well as prophetic truth.
Ephesians 3:3-11; Colossians 1:25-27


2. Second, there is the TEACHING activity that is not directly referenced by Jesus, but taught by both Paul and John as being an AID factor for all believers.

4. At 1 Corinthians 2:9-15, Paul taught about both aspects of the Spirit's work.

A. Verse 10, God has revealed them through the Spirit. Apokalupto, as an aorist active indicative refers to the revelation ministry of the Spirit, imparting divine revelation directly to the apostles and prophets (Ephesians 3:5).

B. Verse 12 - Now we have received. The aorist active indicative of lambano refers to the presence of the Holy Spirit that was imparted either at Pentecost, for those who were present (the 11 apostles) or through a transitional impartation for those who became believers in the transition period (Paul, Apollos).

See Topic: HOLY SPIRIT: Indwelling

C. The Spirit out from God. the prepositional phrase, ek theos, indicates the impartation of the Holy Spirit directly from God, just as was promised by Jesus.

D. So that we might know: hina + the perfect active indicative of oida refers to the functional presence of knowledge content in the soul. This can be applied to both the revelation work of the Spirit as well as the teaching work of the Spirit, as both are involved in the process that Paul is discussing at this passage.
The presence of the Spirit facilitated the reception of revelation knowledge by the apostles and the prophets. But the Spirit's presence is also REQUIRED in order to UNDERSTAND the "mystery" truth unique to the church age.

E. Verse 13, Thus, God's communicators use words TAUGHT by the Spirit; words received through the revelation work of the Spirit. But, the communication ministry of the teachers interprets "spiritual things (truths) TO spiritual ONES (believers who function under both the indwelling and filling ministries of the Spirit).


5. 1 John 2:27

A. The anointing: the word chrisma refers to an impartation of something that in the context teaches truth to the believer. At verse 20, we are told that we "have an anointing FROM the Holy One and you all know." The only thing in the context of Scripture that this could refer to, is the indwelling presence of the Spirit. The fact that this, chrisma, is FROM the Holy One (Jesus) indicates that it is referring to the promise of Jesus that He would send the Holy Spirit.

B. which you received: The aorist active indicative of lambano refers to the specific point of time that each believer received the Holy Spirit.

C. abides in you: meno, as a present active indicative helps confirm that we are talking about something that dwells inside and functions as a teaching aid.

D. and you have no need for anyone to teach you:

1. This is referring to the specific information of the context dealing with angelic conflict issues and the application of those things to both salvation and fellowship.

2. The Holy Spirit has already clarified this in detail through previous communicators and the writings of the apostles. The phrase, "Just as it has taught you" as an aorist active indicative refers to past instruction. (Eph. 4:11; 2 Tim. 2:2)

3. Based on their consistent fellowship, ie, abiding in Christ, they have retained the value of these issues in their soul.

4. Therefore, they have no need for anyone to re-teach them.

E. But: alla, introduces an exhortation to continue to apply the principles of fellowship abiding.

F. but as his anointing (chrisma): Notice, "his" to indicate that this is from Christ - He sent it. 1 Jn. 2:20; Jn. 16:17; Lk. 24:49

G. Teaches you: didasko, as a present active indicative, indicates a present function of the Spirit in the lives of believers.

H. about all things: peri + pas (plural - all things). This refers to the fact that the Holy Spirit is instrumental in the learning process of the believer in reference to (concerning) every aspect of Christian truth. This is not talking about moral truth, but about the spiritual truths that deal with life in a different sphere than normal human emotion and logic. The learning of these truths requires the assistance of the Holy Spirit through consistent fellowship, in order to avoid the distorting influence from the sin nature.

I. And is true: The adjective, alethes, corresponds with "the Spirit of truth" at John 16:13.

J. and is not a lie: (ouk pseudos) This is repetition for emphasis to contrast with the reality of false teachers present in the church. Verses 18-19, 26

K. And just as it has taught you: aorist active indicative of didasko

L. Abide in him: This is a present active imperative of meno, and is a command to maintain consistent fellowship, which results in a consistent expression of love as the reflection of Christ's character. Verse 24 says that if we abide in Him, then the teaching (about love) that we have learned will continue to abide in us and be reflected in our life.

6. This is also taught at 2 Corinthians 3:18. As we look into the mirror of God's word, we see the character image of God reflecting back at us. And as we heed the truths presented to us there, we participate in the character transformation, from one expression of glory to a further expression of glory, as growth progresses - "even as by means of the Lord, the Spirit." Again, the Spirit aids in both learning and producing the character reflection of God's glory in our lives.


7. Reception of the Spirit's teaching.
After information is taught to the soul, it is still necessary for the self-consciousness (the ego) to accept the truths and make the necessary decisions concerning them.

A. For the unbeliever it is acceptance of what the Holy Spirit teaches through conviction. John 16:8-11 and 1 Cor. 14:24-25

B. For the believer, there are 3 steps.

1. allowing the Holy Spirit to control, through maintaining or establishing fellowship with God via confession of sin. Gal. 5:16, 25; Jas. 1:21; 1 Pet. 2:1-2 1 Cor. 3:1-3

2. Choosing to be taught: This is through public assembly worship primarily. Heb. 10:25; Heb. 3:7 with 13:7,

3. Choosing to accept: Heb. 3:8; Jas. 1:22; Heb. 12:25; 1 Thes. 5:20-22



1. The Bible has many terms to describe homosexuality.

A. Leviticus 1:27: lying with a male as with a female.

B. Romans 1:27: male leaving the natural use of the female.

1. male: arsān

2. female: thelus

3. natural use: phusikos chrāsis

4. leaving: aphiemi - aorist active participle

C. Romans 1:27: burning in lust toward one another.

ekkaio - to kindle a fire; used for sexual passion

D. Romans 1:27: males with males committing the distorted act.

1. committing: katergadzomai - present middle participle

2. The distorted act: definite article + aischāmosunā

Not according to scheme or design - therefore, distorted and corrupted.

E. Romans 1:26: women exchanging natural function for that which is against nature.

1. exchanging - metallassō - aorist active indicative

2. natural function - phusikos chrāsis

3. Against nature - para phusis - beside as in outside and therefore contrary to.

F. Greek word porneia: sexual immorality in general. It includes everything except sexual expressions between man and woman within the marriage relationship.

G. 1 Timothy 1:10: arsenokoitās

1. arsān - male

2. koitās - bed or sexual act

3. Thus, a man engaging in a sexual act with a man.

H. Jude v. 7: going after strange flesh

I. Hebrew word, qAdāsh: cult prostitute with emphasis on the practice of sodomy.

J. Gen. 19:5: men desiring "to know" other men. This is a term for sexual relations.

K. 1 Cor 6:9: amplified at point 10.


2. Homosexuality is forbidden by the Mosaic law and carries with it the death penalty for violation.

A. Leviticus 18:22

B. Leviticus 20:13 - Principle of moral and spiritual stability within a national entity.

3. God's opinion of homosexuality.

A. 1 Timothy 1:9-10: 6-fold description of moral depravity which includes homosexuality.

1. Lawless: anomos - no law or standards of morality, therefore, refers to personal anarchy.

2. rebellious: anupotaktos - overt anarchy

Rebellion against established moral and spiritual authority

3. ungodly: asebās - negative to spiritual truth.

Literally: non-worshiping. It refers to the creature who rejects all affinity with his creator, and therefore reflects no creator imitation whatever.

4. Sinners: hamartōlos - overt expression of negative volition. A way of life that comes short of God's standards.

5. unholy: anosios - no recognition of spiritual exclusiveness. Rejects the fact that God sets restricted policy for life and godliness.

Also indicates substitute religious activity that operates independently from revealed truth as found in the bible.

6. profane: bebālos - common to all. Refers to an attitude of humanism. Everybody can do their own thing and still be right with their fellow man and with God.

7. Then follows a specific list of moral violations which includes homosexuality.

8. All which are contrary to sound teaching: antikeimai - to be (lie) in a position against something.


B. 1 Corinthians 6:9 - they are called unrighteous (adikia).

Violators of divine righteousness and therefore under the indictment from divine justice.

C. Romans 1:28 - not proper, with v. 32. - kathākei - to be proper according to the natural conventions of an organization or society in general. With the negative, it indicates that one is operating totally contrary to those natural and accepted conventions. In this case we are dealing with what God has designed as the proper conventions for human society.


4. Hosea 4:11-14: participation in the sexual cult (phallic cult), which includes homosexuality is called ruin, because there is no divine viewpoint in the soul.

A. harlotry: zenuth - indicates all the facets of phallic cult activity as outlined in Leviticus 18:1-30.

B. V. 6-10 - the cause of the activity is rejection of the word.

C. V. 12-12 - Sums up their phallic cult activity.

D. v. 14

1. The men attend the temple prostitutes - qedeshAh (plural)

The word includes sodomy.

2. Without understanding: lō + biyn (qal imperfect) no content; no discernment

3. Are ruined: lAbat - niphal imperfect

moral and spiritual neutralization; therefore, no capacity for life in moral or spiritual living (v. 10).

5. Job 36:12-14: Phallic cult activity is included as one of the results of negative volition to Truth.

In more recent times, these practices have left their association with religion almost totally, and have become the pure animalism of unbridled lust as the sin nature is given no social restraints. (cult prostitutes = qadesh - plural).

6. A society saturated with homosexuality in both moral and religious activity is illustrated by the city of Sodom.

A. Genesis 13:13

1. Wicked; ra - total moral deviation as indicated in Gen. 19:4-5

(Corresponds with lawless and rebellious of 1Tim.1:9)

2. Sinners exceedingly against the LORD. chattA - corresponds with unholy and ungodly at 1 Tim. 1:9.

3. Immorality practiced as a religion is demonstrated in Gen. 19:4-5 - all the people (males)

B. Genesis 19:4-9

V.4, organized into a power block but still a mob operating on emotions and lust without divine viewpoint or moral objectivity. (rebellious)

V.4, Invasion of privacy: (lawless)

V.5, The objects of their lust have no rights.

V.7, The bleeding heart liberal who has no divine viewpoint, wants to tolerate sin as an alternative life style and accept all men as his brother.

V.9, But these moral deviates do not want equality and brotherhood. They want power and domination.

1. Stand aside: Lot has no rights with these people.

2. Judge: Lot has tolerated them but they do not allow him to have his own standards and opinions.

3. They react with emotional subjectivity and take his attempt to protect his home and guests as a personal attack on them.

4. Lot's attempt to bargain and what he chooses to bargain with simply indicates his own subjectivity and moral depravity.

5. They will employ violence to get their own way.

C. God's solution is total destruction of that society.

And then as this immorality spread further throughout Palestine, God used Israel to destroy the societies that were infected. This took place during the conquests of the land after the Exodus from Egypt.


7. The term sodomite is based on this infamous record of the city of Sodom. The Hebrew word is qadāsh.

A. One dedicated to the deviate sexual practices that dominated the city of Sodom. Gen. 19:4-5; 13:13

B. It is a way of life that spread throughout the entire ancient world as a part of the phallic cult. 1 Kings 14:22-24

C. Astoreth (Greek - Astarte), was the primary goddess worshiped by these devotees, but all centered around the worship of Baal. Judges 2:11-13

D. Compare Jeremiah 23:13-14

E. "the wages of a dog" in Deut. 23:18 is figurative for a religious male prostitute in the phallic cult.

1. dog was used in reference to the physical, "dog-like" manner by which this sin was practiced.

2. The Greeks also used this figure to refer to sodomites. kenaidos = dog like.

3. thus in Rev. 22:15, dogs (kuōn) probably refers to the sodomites, for the practice had become very widespread throughout the Roman empire.


8. The history of this sodomite activity as part of the phallic cult can be traced with the word, qadāsh.

(but cf. qedāshah - Gen. 38:21-22; Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14)

A. 1 Kings 14:22-24: reign of Rehoboam (3143-3159 AH) large scale advance of the cult.

B. 1 Kings 15:11-12: Asa began expelling them from the land during his reign (3163-3203 AH).

C. 1 Kings 22:46: His son, Jehoshaphat finished the task in 3204-3228 AH.

D. But spiritual apostasy prevailed in later years and the practice returned until Josiah had them removed.

2 Kings 23:3-8 (3504 AH, 621 BC).

E. But again, very soon after that, the people re-embraced the practices of the phallic cult and it led to the divine discipline of the Babylonian captivity in 605-536 BC.

Ezekiel 16:15-43

F. There was no "overt" idolatry in Israel after the restoration from the Babylonian captivity in 536 BC.


9. Comments on Romans 1:26-27: homosexuality is one of the natural expressions of creature arrogance that rejects the authority and policy of the Creator. (the darkening process)

10. Comments on 1 Corinthians 6:9:

A. effeminate: malakos - a catamite. The "passive" homosexual who allows himself to be used by others.

B. homosexual: arsānokoites - the aggressor. Used for the homosexual in general.

C. Mentioned in a list of activities that characterize the unbeliever because of domination by the sin nature.

D. They are viewed as being in a "status" of particular sin because they are members of Satan's kingdom of darkness and can best be described by that which dominates their life.

E. And therefore, they shall no inherit the kingdom of God.

future active indicative - klāronomeō.

1. This is the same principle found at Eph. 5:5.

2. Do not have: present active indicative of echō.

3. an inheritance: klāronomia

4. in the kingdom of Christ and of God.

F. But the beauty of this passage is v. 11, especially in the context of the back-sliding Corinthian believers.

1. God's plan provides opportunity for recovery. Acts 26:18

2. The person who believes in Christ is now viewed as a child of God in union with Christ - and no longer as sinner. Eph. 2:1-9

G. And such were some of you: The Corinthians in pre-salvation status. One or more of the categories mentioned in v. 9-10.

H. But: alla - strong contrast between darkness "status" and the 3-fold work of God to change that status.

1. You were washed: aorist middle indicative. In a moment of time (in fact, the very moment of time that one trusted in Christ as savior) God cleansed him from the stain of sin and gave him total forgiveness.

2. You were sanctified: aorist passive indicative, hagiadzō.

refers to the VERY same point of time of trusting in Christ. Set apart into a new "status" of union with Christ. Placed into the body of Christ and the kingdom of light through the baptism of the Holy Spirit which occurred at the very moment that they believed.

3. You were justified: aorist passive indicative - dikaioō.

Means to be pronounced righteous in God's eyes because of Christ's work and your acceptance of that work by faith. 1 Peter 2:24; 2 Cor. 5:21

4. In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ: the authority behind the new status is Christ's person and work.

5. And by the Spirit of our God. The mechanics of the new status is the baptism of the Holy Spirit. 1 Cor. 12:13.

I. But the Corinthians, out of fellowship with God, were back to practicing many of these sins.

1. And yet, their new relationship is secure.

2. And they are exhorted to be living "holy" just as they are in their positional "status" IN CHRIST. 1 cor. 6:12-20.

J. The very same idea is in view at Ephesians 5:5-8


11. Thus homosexuality is a life style of sin, totally condemned by God as evil.

A. It qualifies under the sensuality of Eph. 4:17-19.

B. It is not a disease: 1 Tim. 1:9-10

C. It is not a genetic malfunction.

D. It is a sin! It is committed by free will regardless of family, social or cultural influence.

E. It is no different from any other sin: murder, lying, stealing, gossip, adultery, etc.

F. But as a sexual sin, it does carry natural consequences that affect one's personal life and all of society.

G. The existence of AIDS is not a direct judgment from God.

It is the natural consequences catching up to a society that is immoral, ungodly and lawless.

H. But salvation is available to all - regardless of their past or present sins.

12. AIDS

A. The crisis of AIDS in our society today must be evaluated and dealt with in the same way that plagues have been handled all throughout history.

B. The primary source of transmission must be neutralized.

1. Since the "mosquitoes" of AIDS are people, it is not an option for us to destroy them as we did the insects and rodents of past plagues.

2. But the carriers must be neutralized. And the only logical solution is appropriate testing and then quarantine.

3. This causes a total disruption of life for these people, but it is necessary to stop the spread of the plague.

4. Unfortunately, many innocent recipients and carriers of AIDS must also be separated from society. But it is just as necessary as it was with scarlet fever, small pox, the black plague, etc.

5. If we do not, then AIDS will totally saturate our society and destroy our nation.

C. Other suggested ways of dealing with the "mosquitoes" of this disease are all inadequate as they rely upon "character" decisions being made by the carriers.

1. But such "character" decisions will not, indeed, cannot be made by the immoral animals responsible.

2. The suggested alternatives come form the homosexual community, liberal politicians and liberal religious people.

3. But all of these either ignore or have not properly evaluated all the facts connected with AIDS.

a. The newly published Surgeon General's report is totally misleading and inadequate in its analysis.

b. AIDS can be transmitted by - tears, saliva, bodily fluids and mosquito bites.

c. Although AIDS itself is probably not transmitted by coughing and sneezing, it is a fact that many of the diseases that AIDS victims contract in association with AIDS are very easily transmitted through coughs and sneezes. One of the most dangerous of these "attendant" diseases is TB.

D. But our nation will probably not respond to this crisis in time if at all. And all of us, believer and unbeliever alike; moral and immoral alike, will feel the effects in the years to come as this epidemic truly reduces our society to total helplessness.


13. For completion a study of Gen. 9:20-27 is valuable. However, contrary to what many bible scholars believe, the activity of Ham at this incident has absolutely nothing to do with homosexuality. His sin was not an act of homosexuality, but an attitude and expression of total disrespect for his father's authority and teaching.


14. The homosexual revolution:

A. Gay Community News: Michael Swift, Feb, 15-21, 1987 (Boston, Connecticut)

Partial quotation -

"We shall sodomize your sons, emblems of your feeble masculinity, of your shallow dreams and vulgar lies. We shall seduce them in your schools, in your dormitories, in your gymnasiums, in your locker rooms, in your sports arenas, in your seminaries, in your truck stops, in your all male clubs, in your houses of congress, wherever men are with men together. Your sons shall become our minions and do our bidding. They will be recast in our image. They will come to crave and adore us. All laws banning homosexual activity will be revoked. . . if you dare cry faggot, fairy, queer at us, we will stab you in your cowardly hearts. . .All churches who condemn us will be closed. Our only gods are handsome young men... We shall be victorious because we are fueled with he ferocious bitterness of the oppressed...We too are capable of firing guns and manning the barricades of ultimate revolution.


There revolution, however, even though powerful and destructive to all of society, will not succeed for they will destroy themselves first.


The Advocate: sept. 29, 1987 (partial quotation)

"There is a deepening recognition within the gay community, that a more dramatic form of moral and legal resistance is needed." "...above all else, the Supreme Court action signifies a watershed in the maturation and refinement of gay political sensibilities in America. It symbolizes a certain coming of age for the gay rights movement: an emphatic declaration that gays intend to more closely align their struggle for human rights with the other great civil rights movements of this century."

Andy Humm, New York City homosexual activist -

"If you think for instance, that HIV testing programs are wrong, and health officials are compiling data on people that they have no right to, I'm saying that a possibility might be to destroy files. Do I want to give anybody ideas? Sure."

Larry Kramer told the Advocate (August 18, 1987)

"I think we have to go out and start our own Irgun, which was the underground organization the Jews had when they were fighting to establish Israel. If you really want to know, I think we should destroy Gracie Mansion... One of my favorite notions is that we make fake blood and throw bottles of it in public places, and shout, 'This is AIDS blood!' Let them think that it is. We have to scare people. We have to make their lives uncomfortable. I think we should be doing things like tying up expressways and blocking bridges. . . I think we should be tying up whole cities. We should cripple the country. We should throw bombs. We should set fires. We should stop traffic. We should surround the White House."



1. Man is composed of body, soul and spirit. 1 Thes. 5:23; Heb. 4:12
2. The soul is the real person. It contains the substance of mentality and character.
Prov. 23:7. (See Topics: Heart, emotions, soul)
3. The spirit of man is the manifestation of the character of the soul. Man's personality and emotional responses are expressed through the spirit.
4. All people have a spirit. Is. 42:5; Num. 27:16; Job 12:10
(Unbelievers: 1 Chron. 5:26; 2 Chron. 36:22
5. The body is the physical house of the soul and spirit, and functions dependent on the status of the soul. 2 Cor. 5:1; Prov. 14:30
6. Physical death is related directly to the removal of the soul and the spirit. James 2:26;
Ec. 12:7; Ps. 146:4; Luke 8:55; Acts 7:59; Mat. 27:50; Job 34:14-15
7. The spirit is a reflection, a manifestation of the character of the heart. Lk. 1:47; Ex. 35:21;
Joshua 2:11; Job 7:11; 15:12-13; 20:3; Ps. 34:18; 51:10; 78:8; Pr. 15:13; Is. 26:9; 65;14; Ezek. 18:31.
8. Accordingly, the Bible ascribes to the heart and the spirit, the same expressions of character and emotion. Examples -
A. Volition: Ex. 35:21 (CF. hardness of heart and spirit)
B. Grace orientation: 1 Pet. 3:4; Col. 3:16
C. Encouragement: 1 Cor. 16:18; Col. 2:2
D. Sorrow: 1 Kings 21:5; John 16:6
E. Joy: Luke 1:47
9. So the spirit can be sinful and can become defiled with human viewpoint just like the heart.
Isaiah 29:24; 2 Cor. 7:1; 1 Thes. 5:23; 1 Cor. 7:34

10. The term "spirit" is sometimes used to refer to the actual person in the same way as the word soul is used to indicate a living person (nephesh, Gen. 46:15, 18, 26-27; psuchā, Acts 27:37).
Spirit: Heb. 12:23; 1Cor. 5:5; Rom. 8:16; 2Cor. 7:1; phil. 4:23; 2Tim. 4:22; Philm 25.
This is similar to the fact that the word, spirit, is also used to designate an angelic entity. Heb. 1:14; 2Chron. 18:20;
And an unclean spirit. Acts 19:15; Rev. 18:2; gospels; Job 4:15;

11. Application to the believer:
A. In actual experience, there is no real impact since the heart, soul and spirit are so intricately inter-related. But terminology and function is established.
B. Once the real function of the body, soul and spirit are clarified, the meaning of Gen. 1:27 takes on great significance. The 3-fold image of God finds its expression in the 3-fold structure of man.
1. Soul corresponds with the Father.
2. Body corresponds with the "physical" manifestation of the Godhead: The Son.
3. Spirit corresponds with the Holy Spirit.

C. There is nowhere in the Bible that suggests that man ever lost this image of God, just his relationship with God.
D. There is no basis for ascribing human orientation to the soul and spiritual orientation to the human spirit. As we have seen, the soul (via the heart) and spirit
are inter-related through the principle of substance and reflection.
E. There is no Bible evidence for saying that the unbeliever has no spirit or even just a "dead one." The entire structure of man is "dead to God." Body, soul and spirit. Spiritual death extend to the total person. We have seen that the human spirit is fully functional in both believer and unbeliever.

11. For more details on the SOUL, mind, conscience, heart, and emotions see
TOPIC: The soul  in the letter S section


HUMILITY: Orientation - James 4

1. God provides grace resources for the humble: James 4.6

2. Relationship humility: extension of creature humility into our Christian way of life.

James 4.7 - Subjection to God

A. Recognition of God as the absolute authority in our life. Rom. 14.8

B. This is an extension of creature humility and is indicated by the term "fear of the Lord."

C. No advance can be made in the Christian way of life without this attitude. Pr. 1.7

D. And it is the basis for all spiritual activity.

1. 1 Peter 1.17

2. Heb. 12.9b - live - experience the blessings of eternal life in time and avoid the sin unto death.

3. 2 Cor. 7.1-perfecting holiness (acceptance and practice of Divine policy)

E. Principle of ownership and service: 1 Cor. 6.19-20; Col. 3.24

F. Divine control over death: 1 Sam. 2.6; Ps. 116.15; 2 Cor. 5.1-8; Heb.11.19

3. Fellowship humility: James 4.8 -
Draw near to God is the ATTITUDE.
cleanse your hands you sinners is the ACTION

A. Extension of sin humility into the Christian way of life. Ps. 51.17
B. Personal sins: Ps. 51.1-4; 1 Jn. 1.10
C. Old sin nature: Ps. 51.5; 1 Jn. 1.8
D. Solution: Ps. 51.6 via v. 17 and Prov. 28.13; 1 Jn. 1.9
E. Dependence on the H.S: Rom. 8.8; Gal. 5.16
F. God's policy - not man's: Gal. 5.4-5
G. Absolute standards of light: 1 Jn. 1.5-7

4. Growth humility: James 4.8 - purify your hearts

A. Authority perspective: Pr. 1.7; 15.33

B. Principle of ignorance: 1 Cor. 2.9-10

1. As babes: 1 Pet. 2.1-3;
2. Paul's desire: 1 Cor. 10.1; 12.1; 2 Cor. 1.8; 1 Thes. 4.13

C. Divine provision:

1. Holy Spirit: Jn. 14.26; 16.12-15; 1 Jn. 2.27

2. The Word: 2 Tim. 3.16-17; 2 Pet. 1.3-4

3. Communication gifts: Eph. 4.11-12; 2 Tim. 2.2

D. Our response: James 1.21-15; 1 Thes. 5.20-22

E. Principle of preparation: 2 Tim. 2.15; 1 Pet. 3.15


5. Detail of life humility: James 4.9

A. Mt. 6.19-34
B. 1 Tim. 6.17-19
C. 1 Cor. 6:12-13
D. 1 Cor. 7:29-35

6. Policy humility: James 4.10

A. Relationship: Jn. 3.16 - whosoever ---

1. Eph. 2.1-9
2. Rom. 5.6-10
3. 1 Cor. 10.31-33

B. Fellowship: based on God's standards - 1 Jn. 1.5-7

C. Knowledge: God's revealed word - 1 Cor. 4.6-7

1. 2 Tim. 3:16
2. Romans 15:4
3. 1 Tim. 6:3
4. The issue of edification
    a. Romans 14:19; 15:1-2
    b. 1 Cor. 14:12, 26
    c. Eph. 4:12

5. 1 Cor. 14:37

D. Spiritual gifts: 1 Peter 4.10

1. Rom. 12.4-5
2. 1 Cor. 12.14-27

E. Rituals:

1. Baptism: 1 Cor. 1.13-17
2. Communion: 1 Cor. 11:17-34

3. Giving: Mt. 6.2-4; 2 Cor. 8.12; 9.7

4. Prayer: Mt. 6.5-7; Jn. 16.23

5. fasting: Mt. 6.16-18; 1 Cor. 7.5

6. witnessing: Mt. 7.22; Jn. 15.4-5; 1 Pet. 3.15-16

7. Diet: Col. 2.16, 20-23; 1 Tim. 4.3-5

8. Holidays: Rom. 14.5-6; Col. 2.16

9. Church attendance: 2 Tim. 3.7; Jas. 1.22; 1 Pet. 5.1-5;
1 Thes. 5:20-22; Heb. 10.25

10. Association:

a. celebrity-ship: 1 Cor. 3.3-9; Gal. 2.1-6
b. Separation: 2 Cor. 6.14-18


7. Application humility: James 4.11-12

A. Toward self: moral and spiritual objectivity

B. Toward others: moral and spiritual sensitivity

C. Toward things: moral and spiritual generosity

D. Application of love - Rom. 13.8-10

8. Service humility: James 4.13-15

        A. Romans 12:1, 11
        B. 1 Cor. 6:20
        C. 1 Cor. 10:31
        D. Mat. 4:10
        E. Col. 3:23-24

9. Creature Arrogance:  James 4:16-17


HUMILITY: Creation Humility

1. Orientation to creation:

A. God as the creator: Gen. 1:1; John 1:1-3; Col. 2;16
B. The owner: Psalm 24:1
C. The message: Psalm 19:1-3; Rom. 1:20

2. The original design for man: Gen. 1:28-29

3. The loss of rulership:

A. The fall of man: Gen. 3
B. The new ruler: Jn. 12:31; 14:30; 16:11 with Luke 4:6 & 2 Cor. 4:4.
C. After the flood: Gen. 9:1-7

4. The curse on creation:

A. Gen. 3:17-19
B. Romans 8:20-23

5. Therefore we need to recognize and respect the negative effects of the curse. Indicated by Noah at Gen. 9:20-21.

6. The ultimate effect of the curse is physical death. 1 Cor. 15:21. Gen. 3:19b

7. Creation humility also determines how we relate to other life forms.

A. Gen. 9:2-3 = dominion over animal life for personal benefit.

1. Primary moral use: permanent - food supply and clothing. 1 Tim. 4:4; Gen. 3:21

2. Primary worship source: temporary - animal sacrifices. Lev. 17:11; Heb. 9:19-22

B. Domestic: used to provide relief from the curse.

1. Proper attitude: Proverbs 12:10
2. Applied at Deut. 25:4

C. Wild:

1. Protection against is authorized: 1 Sam. 17:31-33

2. Hunting for the sport of it does not qualify as protection of one's life nor as a domestic benefit.

3. Extinction of species is in God's hands entirely and only becomes a concern for man as it relates to his use of animals for relief from the curse.

4. Therefore, protection of a type of snail, etc. by rejecting the construction of a much needed water control structure such as a dam, is creature arrogance and stupidity.


8. Man has been equipped to employ the laws of nature and its materials in order to alleviate the negative effects of the curse.

A. But if man depletes those materials (natural resources) then he hinders his ability to endure the curse.

B. Therefore, common sense must also be employed to protect natural resources and cultivate them so there will be ample supply to meet the needs of the coming generations.

C. But technology has developed and been employed faster than man's wisdom so that the reaping of many resources surpasses the natural ability for them to be replenished.

D. So in many cases, some resources have been totally depleted.

E. In other cases, when man has discovered the problem soon enough, he has used that same technology to cultivate the resources and control the reaping.

9. Restrictions toward creation:

A. Not to be worshiped: Ex. 20:2-5; Deut. 4:19; Rom. 1:21-23
B. Animals are not for sex: Lev. 18:23



©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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