These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation

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The Gap

Gehenna: See Lake of Fire


Times of the Gentiles

GENTLENESS: Character Qualities


GIFTS of the Spirit


Giving: Spiritual Gift of Finances

GIVING UP: Galatians 6:9



Gnashing of teeth


GOD-CONSCIOUSNESS: A short discourse

The GODHEAD: Beginnings, an article

The GODHEAD (Trinity)

GOD'S CHARACTER: The Ten Absolute Attributes of the Godhead

God's Character (Summary)

GOD'S CHARACTER: Applied to the Christian life


GOD: The Almighty

GOD is light

GOD: The compassion of God

GOD: The Eternity of God

GOD: The eyes and ears of God

GOD: The Evaluator

GOD: The Goodness of God

GOD: The Graciousness of God

GOD: The Guardian of our soul

GOD: The Holiness of God

GOD: The Image of God

GOD the Judge

GOD: Justice of God

GOD: the Kindness of God

GOD: the Knowledge of God
Foreknowledge and God's plan: part one
Foreknowledge and God's plan: part two

GOD: The Love of God

GOD: Orientation to God's HATE


GOD: The Power of God

GOD: The Righteousness of God
     Also: God is UPRIGHT

GOD: The Shepherd of our souls

GOD: Our Shield

GOD: Sovereignty of God

GOD: Sovereignty - Basic summary

GOD: The Truth of God

GOD'S CHARACTER: adjustment to

GOD'S CHARACTER: Abraham's orientation

God the Father: Addressed as Lord

GOD and FATHER of Jesus

Gog and Magog: Armageddon

Gog Magog revolt: Millennium



Government: One world government


GRACE PROVISION: Resources for living the Christian life

GRACE: The Periphery of grace

GRACE Speaking


Granville Sharp rule

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

GROWTH: Spiritual growth
Spiritual Growtha: audio
Spiritual Growthb: audio 
Spiritual Growthc: audio
Spiritual Growthd: audio


GROWTH: The Urgency of Spiritual Growth

GROWTH: Opposition to growth

GROWTH: The Pursuit of knowledge

GROWTH: Knowing Christ

GROWTH: The Sower Parable

Guardian angels: Summary

Guardian angels: Article



1. The name means: hero of God

A. It comes from gebher = mighty man (adjective, gibbōr; verb, gAbhar)
plus el (āl) = God. The result = gAbhriyāl

B. The name implies maximum efficiency in representing the character and plan of God.

C. The name communicates that Gabriel is God's "right hand man."

2. According to Luke 1:19, Gabriel's primary function is, "the one who stands in the presence of God."

A. The one who stands: paristāmi, perfect active participle, means to stand beside, to be at one's disposal, to represent.

1. Perfect tense: indicates a permanent position
2. Participle: presents a characteristic.

B. before: enpōpion = in the presence of
C. God: "THE" God, the entire Godhead is in view.
D. This description indicates that Gabriel is the chief representative of God's character and plan and as such, is stationed at His throne in the 3rd heaven.

E. Apparently, Gabriel was assigned to the chief office among the angels when it was vacated by Satan's rebellion and removal. Ezek. 28:14

3. In Daniel 8:16; 9:21 and 10:10, Gabriel fulfilled his office by delivering crucial information to Daniel concerning the progress of the divine plan for the future.

4. In Luke 1:11-20 and 26-38, he again fulfilled his office by announcing the arrival of the first advent of the Messiah.

5. To be sent to the earth for various tasks does not prevent him from being the "covering cherub" because that position is one of representation and rank not just physical location.
(Besides, if one prefers to assign Michael to be the covering cherub, we are faced with the very same issue.)

6. Comparison with Michael the archangel.

A. Hebrew: miykAāl - has 3 parts.

1. Interrogative pronoun, miy = who?
2. preposition, ke = like or as.
3. el (āl) = God
4. Result: Who is like God?
5. Communicates God's uniqueness in character and essence.
6. Gabriel's name communicates that he is God's "right hand man."

B. Daniel 10:13, "one of the chief princes." Notice, NOT the chief prince.

1. Cf. New Testament archangel in Jude 1:9 and 1 Thes. 4:16

2. Jewish tradition indicates that their are 7 archangels, but the bible indicates there is only one.

3. The term describes the rank with regard to his special function in God's plan.

C. Daniel 10:21 and 11:1, indicate that Michael is in a subordinate position to Gabriel.

D. Daniel 12:1, describes Michael as the "guardian angel" of the nation of Israel.
Daniel 10:21. In 1 Thes. 4:16, Michael participates at the rapture because this is also the time for the restoration of Israel as the evangelistic agent).

E. Rev. 12:7, does not contradict this position. Michael is still functioning as the guardian of Israel, even though he has temporarily "stepped aside" as indicated at Daniel 12:1.

F. Michael is very high in rank, if not number 2, but he has specific function in connection with Israel while Gabriel's function is to "stand in the presence of God."

G. At Jude 9, Michael had the responsibility of putting the body of Moses in a "safe place" after his death , to await his role in the tribulation as one of the 2 witnesses-heralds of Rev. 11.

H. Michael is NOT the pre-incarnate Christ, ie, the "Word" of John 1:1.

1. Michael is "one of" the chief angels, not THE chief. Dan. 10:13.
2. Michael and the Christ "appear" in the same historical context as two different beings at Rev. 12:
3. Christ is identified via 1 Cor. 10:1-3 as the Rock who delivered and followed Israel throughout the wilderness (Deut. 32). And the Rock is none other than Yahweh God Himself.

4. Michael is NOT the angel (messenger) of the LORD. The angel of the Lord is clearly identified as Yahweh Himself.
See topic Angel of the LORD

Return to study on Angels


The Gap

Commentary Genesis 1:1-2
1. Genesis 1:1 states the original creation of the physical universe which includes the planet earth as the divinely established center of the universe.

A. In the beginning: refers to the point of time when the physical universe came into existence. At Job 38:4, it is described as "when I founded the earth."

B. It was after the creation of angels that this took place, as they all were present and rejoicing. Job 38:7

C. The universe was created by the Word of the Godhead. Ps. 33:6; 2 Pet. 3:5

D. The 2nd person of the Godhead actually did the speaking and performed the mechanics. John 1:3; Heb. 1:2; Col. 1:16

E. The Hebrew word, bArA, in Genesis 1:1, indicates that what was created was "ex-nihilo" - out of nothing.

F. The universe and the earth were created perfect. Deut. 32:4

G. Isaiah 45:18 describes this perfection.

1. Not a waste place: not tōhu.
2. Created to be inhabited: organized and stabilized and populated by a pre-Adamic, non-volitional life.

3. Probably dinosaurs.

H. Psalm 18:7-15 describes this judgment with emphasis on the destruction of the physical features of the earth.

I. Jeremiah 4:23-26 describes the earth AFTER the judgment.

1. At verse 25, we learn that there were birds present.
2. Cities in v. 26, refers to the organized living arrangements of the fallen angels who would come to the earth after Satan's fall.

2. This act of creation took place before the angelic revolt of Ezek. 28:11-17 and Is. 14:12-17.

A. Based on Job 38:7
B. The purpose for the universe was to promote the greatness of the Godhead in the eyes of his angelic creation. Principle of Psalm 19:1

3. When Lucifer rebelled against divine policy, he and the angels who followed him were kicked out of heaven and they made their place of residence, the earth. Ezek. 28:16; Is. 14:12a; Rev. 12:4

A. Lucifer's sin initially was pride which caused him to promote himself above God and to violate the divine trust assigned to him. Ezek. 28:16a, 17a, 18a.

B. When this sin emerged, Lucifer was removed from his heavenly duties and personally condemned to the lake of fire. Ezek. 28;19, "you will be no more."

C. In this promotion of self and criticism of God, he persuaded 1/3 of the angels to follow him. Rev. 12:4

D. All the angels who followed Lucifer were indicted by God and given the same destiny of the lake of fire. Mat. 25:41.

E. At this point, Lucifer protested and postulated his doctrine of love and fairness, "how can a loving God cast his creatures, who he loves, into the lake of fire?"

1. This is an attack on divine righteousness and justice, thinking that love supersedes them. Job 4:18.

2. Thus, for God to be perfectly fair, he must demonstrate the perfect compatibility between all three of those attributes, without compromising any of them.

4. So the plan of the ages (Eph. 3:11) was put into operation.

A. Created a lower life form than the angels but with the same volition. Heb. 2:6-8

B. Give it the reality of divine provision in every area of life and make known the potential and consequences of evil. (The tree + specific instruction).

5. Satan and his angels were given a stay of execution until such time as God demonstrates the validity of His judicial indictment upon them. This is the issue at Philip. 2:9-11.

A. Name of Jesus: reputation and essence
B. Confess He is Lord: sovereign
C. To the glory of God the Father: full vindication of His essence.

6. Satan chose to "wait it out" by setting up homestead on planet earth. Is. 14:12

A. You have been cut down: God's activity
B. To the earth: Satan's choice.

7. It is here that he organized paragraph 1 and 2 of his darkness manifesto to take the place of God. Isaiah 14:13

A. Paragraph One: directed toward himself, "I will ascend to heaven."
B. Paragraph Two: directed toward the other angels, "I will exalt my throne above the stars of God."

8. But God had chosen to use the earth for the environment of the new volitional creature (man).
Reflected in Isaiah 45:18

A. So God put a stop to Satan's possession of the earth and totally destroyed its surface by covering it with water and ice. 2 Pet. 3:5-6

B. This is described in Gen. 1:1-2 in general.

1. The earth became: The verb is, hAyAh which can be translated as, "became." (Gen. 2:7; 19:26; Isaiah 66:2)

2. Formless: a waste = tōhu
Cf. Is. 45:18, it was not created this way.

3. And empty: bōhu - lit., emptiness

a. Physical non-volitional life forms destroyed.
b. Satan and angels driven away.

4. And then God (possibly immediately) began re-forming the surface which is described in detail at Gen. 1:2b through 2:4.

5. Thus the 6 days of "creation" are actually 6 days of "restoration."

C. This judgment is also described by prophetic "flashback" in Psalm 18:7-15 and Jeremiah 4:23-26.

D. When Satan and angels were kicked off the earth, they were probably forced to be "wanderers" without and "world" as a place of residence.

E. So it is that when man was created he was given possession and authority over the earth. Gen. 1:28; Ps. 8:6-8

F. And when Satan procured Adam's spiritual fall in the garden, he wrested that authority from Adam and became the ruler over the earth and the atmosphere in his place. 2 Cor. 4:4; Jn. 12:31; Luke 4:6; Eph. 2:2

G. Satan organized this rulership into a "world system" of darkness in order to advance His plan to discredit and frustrate the progress of God's plan.
2 Cor. 4:4; 11:13-15; Eph. 6:12; Col. 2:8; 1 John 5:19

H. From within this darkness system, he then formulated the rest of his darkness manifesto. Is. 14:13b-14

1. Paragraph 3: directed toward man, world rulership over the human race.

2. Paragraph 4: Directed toward the Messianic presence.
"the Cloud" (singular in the Hebrew).

3. Paragraph 5: directed toward God, "I will be like the Most High."

I. The length of the gap is unknown and can be speculated about through geological discussion. But the existence of this "gap" is both reasonable and necessary in view of the revealed details of the angelic conflict.

SEE: Genesis One by Clarence Larkin

SEE a well-written, friendly and reasonable support for the GAP at this blog
but be warned, it is quite long. Old Earth creationism

Return to study on Angels



I. Definition and description:

1. There is a pull or influence acting on the soul of each one of us which is directed toward the behavioral patterns of our parents.

A. This pull comes from the sin nature genes inherited from the parents and reflects their areas of strength and weakness.

B. The term, "drift" indicates the natural tendency of the sin nature to "drift" toward the parent's sin nature expressions. 1 Kings 15:3, "walked in all the sins of his father, which he had committed before him."

2. In defining genetic drift, we must also understand that families have lust patterns which influence children.

A. Some families have lust patterns in the area of education, so all the family members concentrate on college diplomas or face family censor.

B. Some have military traditions to "live up to" or music traditions, or athletic traditions.

C. The most powerful of these family "lust" patterns is in the area of religion.

3. The genetic drift then, is that genetic "pull" toward the life style or attitudes of your parents which are determined by sin nature tendencies (lusts).

A. Many times, children controlled by their sin nature will reject the life style and attitudes of their parents.

B. But this is only individual rebellion and searching for independence by the sin nature.

C. As they reach adulthood, the sin nature will "naturally" return to similar attitudes and standards as those of the parents.

1. By "parents," we must recognize that the genes from one's entire family tree go into forming the "character" of the sin nature.

2. Jeremiah 11:9-10; 16:10-12

D. Of course, the off-setting factor to the "drift" of the sin nature is the influence of divine moral and spiritual standards.


II. The genetic drift and the family curse are directly related.

1. The family curse is the presence and intensification of natural and applied consequences on a family's members because of the perpetuation of negative volition to both moral and spiritual divine standards.

2. The family curse is perpetuated as children are influenced by the "hardened" attitudes of their parents, grandparents, etc., because of sin nature affinity.

3. Children do not pay for their parent's sins. Ezek. 18:20
They are judged for their own sins. But under the family curse, the way they are judged, directly relates to the sins of the forefathers.

4. A child is influenced by his parent's attitudes, both good and bad, all throughout his life because of genetic drift - OR - pulls away because of positive response to the word of God.

5. The progress of the family curse intensifies through 4 generations as is illustrated by Prov. 30:11-17. (Ex. 20:5-6)

6. But after 4 generations, God's restraining power interrupts the progress, and generation #5 begins afresh. However, the children of generation #5 will still have the same sin nature tendencies through the reality of genetic drift. Therefore, they will still have potential to begin a new cycle of family curse for another 4 generations.

III. Protection from the genetic drift

1. Ideally: parental instruction.

A. Eph. 6:2
B. Prov. 2:1-12; 3:1-8; 4:1-9; 5:1-2; 6:20-23
C. Proverbs 22:6

2. The call of Wisdom in general: Proverbs 9:1-6, 10-12

A. Salvation status: Salvation removes you from any existing family curse.
(principle of total forgiveness of all sins)

1. But protection from the genetic drift depends on spiritual growth.
2. And if a new believer fails to apply basic principles of separation, fellowship and growth, then he may very well fall right back under the family curse he escaped from.

B. Spiritual growth provides divine viewpoint standards in the soul to offset the pull of genetic drift. (sin nature tendencies or lusts)

C. The filling control of the Holy Spirit for church age believers, also directly attacks and opposes the lusts of the sin nature. Gal. 5:16-17

RELATED TOPICS: Family curse, sin nature


GENTLENESS: Character Qualities

1. Gentleness as an extension of humility relates to speech and action.

A. Both occur together at Mt. 11.29 - Jesus is humble and gentle.

B. 1 Peter 3.4 - the expression of the heart is described by gentle and relaxed.

C. 2 Tim. 2.25 - gentleness in the expression of paideuo correction.

2. Gentleness expresses sensitivity to the real needs of people.

A. Reasonableness: 2 Cor. 10.1, the gentleness and reasonableness of Christ.

B. Galatians 6.1-2 - restoring an errant believer

C. 1 Peter 3.15 - - - representing truth to seekers

D. Titus 3.2-3 - - - gentleness to all men

(application of truth via humility)

3. Gentleness thus embraces the 15 virtues of agape love (1 Cor. 13:4-7)

A. Gal. 6.2 - - fulfill the law of Christ

B. 1 Cor. 4.21 - Paul's ministry in love and gentleness

C. 1 Cor. 13.4-7 - the 15 virtues of agape love.

4. Christ the example: Mat. 11.29 - praos

A. His purpose: Mt. 21.5 - the grace expression of His intent. John 19.36-37

B. Mat. 12.15-21 (Is. 42.1-3) - the focus in his ministry. John 8.29

C. To seek and to save: Luke 19.10; John 3.17; 12.47-50

D. His teaching: Mat. 7.28-29 - as one with authority.

1. 14 times - I say to you (in the sermon on the mount)

2. Specifically, Mt. 5.22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44

5. Learn from Me: Mt. 11.29

A. Pursue - 1 Tim. 6.11

B. Gal. 5.16-25 - the fruit of the Spirit.

C. Eph. 4.20-32 and 5.1-4

6. Gentleness is not compromised by intensity of action nor firmness of speech. It is compromised when any of the 15 virtues of love are violated.

A. the gentleness of wisdom: James 3.13-17

B. the attack on the gentleness of wisdom: James 4.1-12

7. Application of gentleness in the pursuit of unity:

A. Ephesians 4.1-7

B. Colossians 3.12-17 - the emotions all in line

8. Application of gentleness in an unequal marriage. 1 Peter 3.1-6

9. Gentleness and the progress of growth: James 1.21 (Ps. 25.9)



1. The Gibeonites were a socioeconomic group of Amorite and Hivite people composed of 4 cities in central Canaan.

Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth and Kiriath-Jearim


2. This group of people were positive to the revelation of Yahweh as manifested through the military victories of Israel. And they recognized divine authority over the land of Canaan. Josh. 9.1-27


A. All the kings heard:

1. same thing Rahab heard. Josh. 2.9-10

2. Plus the fall of Jericho and Ai. v. 9.3

B. Negative response of all the kings. Rejection of divine authority and therefore resistance, rebellion and antagonism.

C. But the Gibeonites recognized the prerogatives of divine authority and sought to save their lives on that basis.


v. 3-13 - The deception of the Gibeonites

A. They are positive to divine sovereignty.

B. But they do not know His character or viewpoint, so can only use human viewpoint to protect themselves.

C. But they are willing to conform to divine policy as it is represented in Israel.

1. Make a covenant -

2. Let them live in the land.

v. 14-15

A. Israel made a decision without consulting Yahweh. This is violation of divine policy for them. violates Num. 27.21

B. Made a covenant with them. Violates Ex. 23.32-33

C. Had they consulted Yahweh, the deception would have been exposed. But God would still have honored their positive volition in the same way that Rahab's family was preserved. Josh. 2.8-14

v. 16-17 - the deception revealed

v. 18 - the leaders follow through with the covenant and the people complain.

v. 19-21 - explanation of divine viewpoint activity

A. Failure in one area does not justify failure in another.

B. To break the covenant would violate commandment #3 -Ex. 20.7,

Lifting up the name of Yahweh to promote emptiness.

(v. 19 - "we have sworn to them by Yahweh."

2. Joshua 9.1-27

v. 22-27 - confrontation with the deceivers

v. 23 - status with the nation

A. cursed: under an agreement that will hinder your life style.

1. no independence - but servanthood

2. no enjoyment of free enterprise blessings within the nation.

B. For the house of God: cursing turned to blessing

1. Constant exposure to spiritual truth and therefore maximum opportunity for spiritual blessing which is far greater than material blessing.

2. And they fulfill that potential for spiritual blessing all throughout the history of Israel.

v. 24 - their testimony: creature humility that recognizes the authority of God.

v. 25 - Total resolve to divine policy as represented in Israel.

v. 26 - their lives are preserved - 4 cities involved. v. 17

v. 27 - servants for the tabernacle in the place which He would choose after the division of the land. Deut. 12.1-11


3. Israel's faithfulness to the covenant is illustrated by the battle of Gibeon. Josh. 10.1-15

And God's support of the covenant is evidenced by his support in the battle. v. 8-13

4. After both the Southern and Northern campaigns in Canaan, the 4 cities of the Gibeonites are the only ones who make peace with Israel. Josh. 11.19

5. The Gibeonites began serving the tabernacle in the Joshua generation and continued until the Babylonian captivity in 605 BC.

God even allowed the ark to be personally protected by them for 20 years. 1 Sam. 6.21 with 7.1-2

A. After the Philistines returned the ark which they had captured, it was located for 20 years at Kiriath-Jearrim, one of the 4 cities.

B. First, the Philistines returned it to within the borders of Israel to Beth-shemesh. 1 Sam. 6.8-12

C. the people of Beth-shemesh did not properly respect the ark even though they had Levites present among them.

D. As a result of violating spiritual policy in regard to the ark, God struck down 50,070 of the people.

E. As a result of this they sent the ark to Kiriath-jearim because here were dwelling may of the servants of the tabernacle and they would know what to do.

6. One of David's mighty men was from the Gibeonites. Ishmaiah - 1 Chron. 12.1-4

7. Saul's false zeal persecuted the Gibeonites sometime during the last 10 years of his reign, and had many of them put to death.

A. And since nothing was said or done about it, God disciplined the nation with a famine for 3 years during David's reign. 2 Sam. 21.1-14

B. David appeals to the Gibeonites for a resolution to the problem. v.3

1. make atonement: render justice of satisfaction - kAphar

2. to bless: promote the welfare of - bArak

C. Their answer reflects their servant status and attitude and their dedication to spiritual values. v. 4-6

1. No concern for silver or gold. Humility toward details because of the surpassing value of learning and promoting truth.

2. No attitude of personal revenge to put anyone to death.

3. But they do suggest a punishment and leave the verdict to David.

4. the execution of the 7 sons is based on v. 1 "and his bloody house."

We do not know the ages of the 7, but it is probable that they had a part in Saul's murder spree.

5. The punishment was recognized as divinely sanctioned based on:

a. v. 6 and 9: "before Yahweh."

b. v. 14 - God was moved by entreaty for the land.

Athar - niphal imperfect - the prayer was effective because they met certain requirements laid down by God.

8. When Israel went into captivity to Babylon, the gibeonites went also, and likewise, returned when they returned in 536 BC and picked right up with their tabernacle service. Neh. 7.25; 1 Ch. 9.2

9. Since the Amorites and Hivites are descended from Canaan, they fall under the curse of Gen. 9.25-27 and indeed, the spiritual and physical servanthood of these people fulfills the prophecy of the passage and turns cursing to blessing.

10. So the lesson we have here is one of Grace. And the principle that in the eyes of God, races are not an issue; spiritual status is.



1. The need for Christian giving:

A. Remember the poor: Gal. 6:10; Acts 20:35; James 1:27; 1 John 3:17-18
B. Provision for spiritual leaders: 1 Cor. 9:14, 11; 1 Tim. 5:17-18; Acts 18:1-5; 2 Cor. 11:9
C. Local church organization: Acts 2:44-47; 6:1-4
D. Material needs of other churches: Acts 11:27-30; 12:25; Rom. 15:25-27;
2 Cor. 8:1-4; 1 Thes. 4:9-10
E. Topic: Christian welfare

2. The basis for giving is grace.

A. Freely you have received, freely give. Matthew 10:8b
B. Acts 20:35 - It is more blessed (joy-producing) to give than to receive.
C. 1 Corinthians 16:2, As he has prospered: euodoo = present passive subjunctive = as he has received prosperity.

1. God is the source of all such material things: 1 Tim. 6:17; 2 Cor. 9:8-10
2. So God is the agent of the believer's prosperity. He is "allows" it through the believer's diligence in handling finances. Or He actually makes it happen.

D. 2 Cor. 8:9 - Christ is the ultimate example of giving.

3. The service of giving: The priesthood of the believer. Every believer is a priest, responsible for service to God. Representing God to others and others to God.

A. Believer ONLY: Rom. 8:8-9; Prov. 21:27.

1. Unbelievers gain NOTHING by giving to churches.
2. Believers out of fellowship with God cannot please Him no matter what they do or how MUCH they give.

B. Only believers who are in fellowship (filled with the Spirit): Rom. 14:17-18; Gal. 5:16
C. Every believer is a priest: 1 Pet. 2:9
D. The believer's body is the temple of the Holy Spirit: 1 Cor. 6:19-20
E. The sacrifices of the "Christian" priesthood are designed to glorify the object of worship - God - never man.

1. The whole body: Rom. 12:1 - Every believer is in full time Christian service regardless of circumstances.

2. The sacrifice of service in general: Heb. 12:28
3. The sacrifice of evangelism: Rom. 15:15-16
4. The sacrifice of edification: Philip. 2:16-17
5. The sacrifice of praise: Heb. 13:15, song, prayer, affirmations.
6. The sacrifice of good works: Heb. 13:16, application of bible truth to experience.

7. The sacrifice of sharing: Heb. 13:16 - koinonia; Philip. 4:18 with 1 Cor. 9:13-14, 11

F. And another principle arises: Believers are to accept nothing from unbelievers when such unbeliever is attempting to offer a spiritual sacrifice.

4. The motivation of giving:

A. 1 Cor. 13:1-3 - LOVE: the attitude of promoting the viewpoint and policy of God as more important than all else in seeking the benefit of others.

B. 2 Cor. 9:7 - Using an historical example to exemplify modus operendi:

1. As he purposes in his heart: perfect middle indicative of proaireō = volitional intent.

2. Not grudgingly: ek lupā = grief, pain, sorrow, affliction, hardship.
3. Not under compulsion: ek anagkā = emotional pressure from others. Church leadership, members, family, friends

4. Cheerful: hilaros = relaxation that rejoices in the opportunity to help.

5. The amount of giving:

A. Proportionate to God's provision: 1 Cor. 16:2, "as he has received prosperity from God."

B. Never at the expense of family needs: 1 Tim. 5:8

C. To give "sacrificially" (out of hardship) is never commanded. But sometimes the opportunity encountered elicits from the believer the desire to meet the need by giving up from his own necessities (2 Cor. 8:1-3)

D. A believer who is not responsible for the physical welfare of others can make such a decision. Otherwise, the principle of 1 Tim. 5:8 must be applied.

E. The issue is always the mental attitude in giving - NEVER the amount.

6. Doctrine of tithing: See topic and return

7. Principles of giving from 2 Cor. 8-9

A. 2 Corinthians 8

1. v. 2, all genuine giving is based on the mental attitude of joy (chara). And sacrificial giving will come from an abundance of joy (perisseia chara).
That is, the abundant life reality in the believer's life (contentment and happiness) which is based on knowledge of bible truth, will motivate genuine giving.
Any giving without joy is worthless.

2. v. 3a, giving must be done according to ability (dunamis). Ie, according to what he has - v. 12.

3. v. 3b, Giving must be done freely as an act of personal volition.

a. They gave of their own accord: authairetos = self choosing.
b. v. 10-12: readiness = prothumia = willingness.
c. Thelō = to desire; present active infinitive

4. v. 4a, Giving is a privilege: The grace = charis
5. v. 4b, Giving is fellowship through service with the one who receives.
koinonia = fellowship; in the service (diakonia) of the saints.

6. v. 5b, Genuine giving is preceded by genuine dedication to the Lord: "first gave themselves to the Lord."

a. First: protos
b. Gave: didomi - aorist active indicative

7. v. 5a, Genuine giving is preceded by divine guidance in accepting the authority of those served. "Gave themselves to us through the will of God."

8. v. 8, giving is a demonstration of genuine love for those in need: "sincerity of your love."

a. sincerity: gnasios = genuineness
b. of your love: agapā = seeking the benefit of the object of love.

9. v. 13-15, Giving paves the way for equality in sharing.

You give to me today, I'll give to you tomorrow.

10. v. 16-23, Church finances requires organization and order and responsible people to deal with it.

a. 1 Cor. 16:1-3
b. Rom. 12:8, "he who gives" refers to the spiritual gift of finances.
c. 1 Cor. 14:40, all things to be done - -

1. With good design: euschāmonos = planning, design
2. And according to order: kata taxis

B. 2 Corinthians 9

1. v. 5-6, the personal blessing from giving is based on grace generosity without any holding in covetousness.

a. That the promised gift might be ready.
b. As a blessing: eulogia = that which benefits ( a good word)
c. And not as covetousness: pleonexia = greed, selfishness; hesitancy to share because of concern for your own personal needs.

d. He who sows sparingly: this is the holding back because of selfishness.

e. Thus, the reaping will be deficient because it is not based on genuine motivation.

f. And he who sows bountifully: ie, with blessings (epi + eulogia) proper motivation; the genuine desire to benefit. (eulogia = good word)

g. Will reap with blessings: personal benefit. Because his activity is based on proper motivation.

h. This is not talking about reaping material benefit because you sow materially. The issue is "soul" motivation and soul blessing.

i. But there is a material blessing which is covered in v. 8-11. Ie, God will provide so you can give.

2. v. 7, Giving must be done without personal reserve.
Not out from lupā: sorrow

3. v. 7, Giving must be done without coercion.
Not out from anagkās = pressure

4. v. 7, Giving must come from the attitude of total contentment and joy. cheerful giver = hilaros

5. v. 8-11, God is faithful to provide something to give for the believer who truly wants to give.

8. Point of orientation: Gal. 6:6-10 is not talking about "giving." The subject is application of bible truth through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Giving is indeed included in "doing good" but the real issue is the promotion of spiritual value through knowledge and application of the word of God.


GIVING UP: Galatians 6:9

1. We shall reap the benefits of eternal life blessings here on earth IF we do not grow weary.

ekluō = let go out from our soul. (present passive participle)

2. The potential for giving up is based on losing your point of reference for spiritual stability.

3. The proper point of reference is what keeps your spiritual balance and momentum for further advancement in growth and service.

4. The point of reference is what stabilizes and motivates.

5. The momentum, stability and motivation of your Christian life is measured by the integrity of your point of reference.

6. If your point of reference has "relative" (human) integrity, then the benefit it can offer you is only relative. ( a pseudo benefit based on circumstances rather than the absolutes of God's character and plan).

7. The believer's point of reference is the character and plan of God through Christ.

A. If "you" are the point of reference, this is self-centeredness. And there is no integrity in self under the control of the sin nature (flesh).

B. Your decisions are based on your character - imperfect, sinful.

C. Your imperfect, sinful character can provide no answers for the realities of life. This results in frustration, doubt, depression and finally "giving up."

D. Same scenario exists when your point of reference is: friends, things, money, family, spouse, hobbies, job, etc.

8. Hebrews 12:3, consider Jesus: focus on the proper point of reference.

A. Consider: analogidzomai = a logical evaluation of facts concerning the character and work of Jesus.

B. This focus prevents "soul sickness" by protecting from the "giving up" syndrome.

Grow weary: kamnō = grow weary, become sick, neutralized in the soul; immobile, inactive, nonfunctional, neutralized.

C. The cause of soul sickness is the "giving up" attitude. "By giving up in your soul."

ekluō = to let go out from the soul. (present middle participle)
Instrumental participle to express the mechanics, "BY giving up."

D. Giving up is the failure to use God's assets for living the Christian life which are found through the promises and principles in His WORD.

9. God's plan makes available the "fruit" of the abundant life, which is the experience of eternal life blessings here on earth. Gal. 6:8, "reap eternal life."
This is not a salvation issue. It is addressed to those who are already in the family of God and who are now being exhorted to experience the "eternal" quality of life which they received at the new birth, right now in their life on earth.

10. In order to reap these blessings, we must keep our soul focused on the proper point of reference. Ie, the character and the plan of God.

11. If we turn away and focus on the "realities of life" and their pressures, this is "giving up" in our soul. When we do this, we "let go" of the divine viewpoint standards as our value system, and make human viewpoint and "physical" comfort and security our value system. The result will be a failure to "reap" the benefits of the eternal life which is ours.

A. Everyone who has trusted in Christ as savior HAS the life. It is a present and permanent possession. 1 John 5:11-12

B. But "experiencing" that life here on earth, is based on faithfulness in knowing and using God's word.

C. If we fail to learn and use bible truth through the practice of "faith rest living" then we will miss out on the blessings of eternal life which God has designed for us to experience here on earth.

12. And the ultimate result in our life is "soul sickness" which is expressed in a variety of disorders. (psychosis, paranoia, guilt, schizophrenia; and various aberrations or "manias" such as lying, stealing, gambling, sex, etc.)



1. Definition: The custom of the poor and strangers gathering the leftovers of a crop after the reapers finished.

2. This was a divine command for national life. Lev. 19:9-10; Deut. 23:24; 24:19-22

3. The command was to leave some grain behind when reaping so that the strangers, widows, fatherless, poor - could gather it.

4. If a field was reaped, but a section was forgotten, then it was to remain for the poor.

5. This dealt with - harvesting grains, olives, grapes.

6. Purpose: was 3-fold according to Deut. 24

a. Personal blessing from God - v. 19
b. Commemoration of grace: remembering the deliverance from Egypt - v. 22
c. To provide for those who could not hire themselves out - but were able to work for themselves.



1. Mankind was created for God's glory: 1 Cor. 11.7

A. Ec. 7.29 - He made man upright. A design in the soul which is structured to showcase the character of God.

1. The moral pattern: Romans 2.14-15

2. The glory pattern: 7 functional attitudes of God's character.

respect, love, pride, ambition, hatred, jealousy and anger.

B. Creature responsibility: Psalm 100.1-3; 103.19-22; 148.

C. Psalm 115.16-18 - He has given the earth to the sons of men

D. Psalm 111.1-4 - He made his magnificent things as a memorial

E. Divine viewpoint perspective for man's purpose in life. Ec. 12.13-14

2. Principle of the family heritage: Ps. 145.1-13

3. Purpose for Israel: Is. 43.7; 49.3

4. Purpose for the Church: Eph. 1.3-14; 3.10, 21

5. The testimony of the local church. Romans 15.6

6. The Christian ambassador: 2 Cor. 5.20

A. Based on ownership: 1 Cor. 6.19-20

B. Personal goal: 1 Cor. 10.31

C. Accomplished by God the H.S. Gal. 5.16 with Rom. 8.8

D. Through the teaching ministry of the H.S. John 16.14

E. Through character reflection: Phil. 1.11; Mt. 5.16; Jn. 15.8; 2 Cor. 3.18

F. Through claiming promises: 2 Cor. 1.20

G. Through expressing grace: 2 Cor. 4.15

H. Through function in your spiritual gift: 1 Pet. 4.10-11

I. Through personal testimony: 1 Peter 2.12

J. Through grace giving: 2 Cor. 8.19

K. As lights in the world: Phil. 2.14-16

L. Through Christian production: 2 Thes. 1.11-12

7. Glorification through Messiah's ultimate victory. Phil. 2.11

8. Phrase: To whom be the glory ---

Jude v. 25; Rom. 11.36; 16.27; Phil. 4.20; 1 Tim. 1.17; 2 Tim. 4.18

1 Peter 5.11; 2 Pet. 3.18; Rev. 1.6; 5.13; 7.12


GOD: The Evaluator

1. Statement of fact: Psalm 7.9

A. Examines: bAchan -

B. the hearts: knowledge content and character

C. the emotions: kilyAh - that which demonstrates the attitude and application of truth through response and reflection.

The character and personality traits described at Col. 3.12

D. Proverbs 17.3; 21.2; 16.2

E. Proverbs 24.11-12

2. Thus Divine omniscience: Luke 16.15

3. The use of anthropomorphism: 2 Chron. 16.9

4. Divine response after evaluation: Ps. 18.25-26; Jer. 17.9-10; Ps. 11.4-7

5. Believer's attitude toward Divine evaluation: Ps. 139.23-24; 26.1-7

6. The issue of pleasing God: 1 Thes. 2.4

7. The issue of accountability: 1 Cor. 4.4

8. See Topic GOD the Judge.



1. Gnosticism is a conglomeration of many different philosophies and religions using Christianity as its base.

2. Thus, it embraces redemption through Christ, but mixes everything else with it, so that it is not the genuine gospel.

3. The gnostics took over only the "idea" of redemption through Christ, not the full Christian doctrine. For they made it, a redemption from physical matter rather than from sin.

4. They taught that there was an inherent separation of matter and spirit and that matter was basically evil at its source.

5. It holds to a basic dualism; an absolute good and evil, equally powerful and constantly at war with one another.

6. Gnosticism regards knowledge as superior to faith, but is limited to only a few of the "initiated" intellectuals of the philosophical hierarchy. Thus, you have a restricted type of salvation.

A. They claim to have a superior knowledge which supersedes faith in divine revelation. Thus the title, "gnostikoi" (from the Greek word gnosis = knowledge) to indicate such ones.

B. Only through the pursuit of knowledge can you have acceptance before God.

7. There are two types of gnosticism:

A. Docetic gnostics: From the word "dokeo" which means "to seem." These denied the humanity of Christ, teaching that he only "seemed" to be human.

B. Cerinthian gnostics: From their founder, Cerinthus. These made an absolute separation between the "man" Jesus and the "aeon" from heaven who was called the Christ.

C. Both groups however, taught that physical matter was essentially evil and you had to deal with it in one of two ways:

1. Deny all participation in the physical realm: asceticism
2. Totally embrace matter without restraint: lasciviousness

D. In this manner, they could attract and cater to "everyone" and allow them to live basically, any way they chose, as long as they followed the "philosophy" of the organized hierarchy.

8. Summary:

A. The body is all evil.
B. Pre-existence souls, called eons, live in plaroma.
C. Plaroma is God's fullness and presence - thus, heaven.
D. The eons become entrapped (by evil) in physical bodies on earth (mankind).
E. So to return to plaroma, the evil body must be denied.

1. You don't allow it to participate in "matter." Asceticism
2. Or you are indifferent to the body and let it do whatever it (you) wants. Lasciviousness.

F. In either case, you occupy yourself with the intellectual pursuit of attaining knowledge.

G. But this was usually only a facade, given lip-service. The emphasis was really always placed on either asceticism or lasciviousness.

9. Cerinthus taught four major concepts of error.

A. Denied the incarnation: The human Jesus was born of Mary and Joseph, but the "Christ" came upon him at the baptism and left him at the cross.
(this attacks the person of Christ)

B. He denied the reality of the sin nature and taught that a Christian could reach a state of sinless perfection on earth. (attacks the depravity of man and the divine evaluation of mans need as well as the divine provision for that need)

C. Taught spirituality by asceticism and emotionalism. (attacks the principle of grace)
D. Taught that there were certain sins that you could not commit and still be a Christian. (Attacks God's character and salvation security)

10. Gnosticism was in a "seed" stage during the 1st century, but still had such an influence that it was necessary for it to be exposed.

A. Directly: by Paul (Colossians); John (Gospel and letters)
B. Indirectly: by all the NT writers.

11. The earliest known gnostic was Cerinthus, who was waxing strong during the last part of John's ministry, 80-96 AD.

12. Gnosticism still exists today in many forms and expressions, but still uses as its base, the name of Christ. Just by way of example -

A. Christian Scientist
B. Mormonism
C. Jehovah's Witness
D. Seventh Day Adventist
E. And many denominations hold to various gnostic doctrines without even knowing it.


The GODHEAD (Trinity)

1. The Trinity is a man made term to describe the plural nature of God.
The term itself does not occur in the Bible, but the "reality" represented by the term certainly does.
The better term is the Godhead.

A. God is one in essence or character.
B. But he expresses Himself in 3 distinct personalities.

2. The Godhead is the absolute entity of the universe. It is a term used to indicate a unity concerning the plurality of expression God has chosen for communion within Himself and for revealing himself to his creatures. The Godhead is one in essence and 3 in personality expression. This means that, while God communes within himself through 3 distinct personality factors, all 3 are a unity equally possessing the 10 absolute attributes of Divine character essence.
(Deut. 6.4 -"Yahweh, our God (s); Yahweh (is) a unity.")

A. The 1st personality factor of the Godhead is AUTHORITY.
He expresses himself throughout the Old testament as the Most High God and in the New Testament as God the Father.

B. The 2nd personality factor is REVELATION.
In eternity past, He was the Word; throughout the Old Testament, primarily, the Angel of the LORD; and in the New Testament, the incarnate Son of God, Jesus Christ.

C. The 3rd personality factor is POWER.
The Holy Spirit is the one who executes the power of the Godhead.
He influences, guides and energizes to accomplish God's plan for the human race. He is designated throughout the Old Testament as The Spirit of God.

3. The Godhead has a plurality nature which is established in scripture as triune. This is His STRUCTURAL essence or NATURE. It is not 1 or 2 or 4 or 8, but 3 specific personality expressions.

A. This is the STRUCTURE of that plurality nature in the Godhead.
God Most High, which indicates an authority personality expression.
The WORD, which indicates a revelation personality expression.
The Spirit, which indicates a power personality expression.

B. The character essence or NATURE refers to the specific attributes which are equally shared by all 3 members of the Godhead.
There are 10 absolute attributes of the Godhead.
All other character expressions fall directly under one of these 10.

1. God is sovereign: He has absolute authority to do as he pleases. Ps. 115:3

2. God is eternal, having no beginning or ending. Ps. 90:2

3. God is righteousness which means that He not only IS, but determines what is absolute right. Ps. 145:17

4. God is justice, which as the enforcer of His righteousness, is perfectly fair and impartial. Is. 30:18

5. God is omnipotent. Luke 1:37

6. God is omnipresent. Ps. 139:7f

7. God is omniscient. Is. 46A:9-10

8. God is love which means He places value on His creation and always seeks what is best for it - as he determines what is best.
I Jn. 4:8

9. God is truth which indicates His natural integrity. Is. 65:16

10. God is immutable which indicates that His nature is unchangeable and produces His faithfulness. Malachi 3:6

11. Any other character expressions such as goodness, mercy, compassion, graciousness, kindness, etc., emanate directly from these 10.


4. The use of the word elohim in the Bible indicates the existence of a plural concept concerning God.

A. Elohim is the plural of el or elah and is the only way that the Hebrew has to express the idea of a Godhead.

B. The plural personal pronoun at Gen. 1:26; 3:22 and 11:7 also indicates the existence of a plurality concept concerning God.

C. The significance of the plural, elohim, has been lost through the years by the Jews and others because of a misunderstanding of Deut. 6:4, which says, that God is ONE. What it really says, however, is
"Yahweh our Gods (elohim); Yahweh a Unity!"

D. The true significance of elohim is clearly seen at Joshua 24:23,

"Put away the foreign gods (elohim) which are in your midst,
and incline your hearts to Yahweh, the Gods (elohim) of Israel."

E. See Article, BEGINNINGS for amplification.

5. This plurality is revealed as triune in both the old and new testaments.
Isaiah 48:12-16; 63:7-12; Mat. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14

A. In the Old Testament we learn of 3 distinct personalities at Isaiah 48:12-16.

1. The Lord Yahweh:

2. Me: the one speaking

3. His Spirit: designated elsewhere as the Spirit of elohim (Gods), or the Spirit of (the) Godhead.

B. In the New Testament we find 3 distinct personalities many times, but Mat. 28:19 is unique for we have the phrase, "baptizing them in the NAME of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit." For here the word Name is in the singular to indicate the "unity" factor within the Godhead. Then the 3 personalities are mentioned.

1. The Father
2. The Son
3. The Holy Spirit

C. See article: BEGINNINGS for amplification.


6. Each member of the Godhead performs a different function in dealing with His creation.

A. God Most High (the Father) is the authority expression of the Godhead and represents the "invisible" essence of deity. 1 Cor. 8:6a
That is why it is impossible for man to "visibly" see The Father. John 1:18; 6:46

B. God the Word (The Son) is the source of "contact" for the Godhead.
The one who visibly manifests The Godhead to the human creation.
Thus, He is the agent of creation, communication and salvation. 1 Cor. 8:6b

C. God the Spirit is the power expression of the Godhead, Who works behind the scene to carry out the plan of the Godhead. This also includes the function of "revelation." Isaiah 11:1-2; John 16:12-15


7. The 2nd member of the Godhead is the "revealed" member.
It is how God can be visible to His creatures on the earth.

A. This is seen in the New Testament with Jesus as the "only begotten God," (John 1:18). John 6:46; Col. 1:15; 1 John 4:12; Heb. 1:3.

B. And God revealed in the Old Testament was the "pre-incarnate" Word of God who appeared to members of the human race in various ways.

C. Sometimes as a human: Gen. 32:24-32; 18; Josh 5:13-15

D. Sometimes as an inanimate object:

1. Burning bush: Exodus 3
2. Cloud (by day): Exodus 33:9-23; 34:5; 24:13-18; 40:34-35
3. Pillar of fire (by night): Exodus 14:20, 24; Numbers 14:14

E. The Rock: Deut. 32:4, 15-18, 28-33; 1 Cor. 10:1-4

F. The angel (messenger) of Yahweh: See Topic Angel of the Lord

G. See Topic: CHRIST: The Son of God

H. See Topic: CHRIST: Deity characteristics

I. See Topic: CHRIST: Deity in the Gospel of John

8. The Holy Spirit is a distinct but equal member of the Godhead, Who possesses the same deity characteristics.
See Topic: The Holy Spirit

9. The doctrine of the Trinity (or Godhead) does not teach that there are three Gods.

A. There is only ONE God. Deut. 6:4 Yahweh our elohim (Gods, or Godhead)
Yahweh (is) one (Literally: a unity)

B. God uses language of accommodation to communicate His infinite being to a finite creation (man).

C. Anthropopathism: This means to ascribe to God a human characteristic (which God does not possess) so that finite man can understand or relate to God on a human level.

1. God is not jealous as man gets jealous, but the term communicates expression of God's character in a way we can understand.

2. It is the same with hatred, anger, impatience, etc.

D. Anthropomorphism: This means to ascribe to God a human "physical" characteristic (which He does not possess) so we can relate to Him on a human level.

1. Arm of God: God does not have a physical arm, but the term is used to communicate an action of God in a way we can understand.

2. It is the same with, hand, eyes, mouth, etc.

E. So also, God uses human terms to communicate to man, the various aspects of His involvement with finite humanity.

1. Father: is a term that describes absolute authority in the human realm.

a. So it expresses the first member of the Godhead as the one who is in authority over the whole plan for the universe.

b. 1 Cor. 8:6a, "from whom are all things."

c. It also expresses relationship with God through the new birth. 1 Pet. 1:17

2. Son: is a term that describes total subordination to authority in the human realm. (from the time of His incarnation).

a. So, Son expresses the second member of the Godhead as in a "subordinate" function to the Father during the time of the
incarnation (Philip. 2:7-8).

b. And as the one who carries out the wishes of the Father; carries out the plan of the Godhead in reference to mankind.

c. 1 Cor. 8:6b, "by whom are all things."

3. Spirit: is a term that describes influence and motivation in the human realm.

a. So, Holy Spirit expresses the third member of the Godhead a the one who reveals, guides and influences the plan of God toward man.

b. Isaiah 11:1-2; John 16:12-15

10.The Godhead is ONE or a UNITY, according to Deuteronomy 6:4.
But at Matthew 28:19, the UNITY is given a plural designation.

A. Name is in the singular.

1. Name rarely means "title." Mostly it refers to the character or reputation of the person in view.

2. Name here, indicates the authority and character of the Godhead.

B. The Godhead is designated by three titles which together, communicate the complete expression of the Godhead toward man.

11. Other places where this unity and plurality occur together.

A. Isaiah 48:12-16; 61:1; 63:7-14
B. Matthew 3:16-17; 1 Corinthians 12:4-6; 2 Corinthians 1:21-22; 13:14
C. Ephesians 4:4-6; Titus 3:4-6
D. 1 Peter 1:2; Jude 20-21; Rev. 1:4-5
E. Also compare Romans 15:30; Philippians 2:1

12. Summary

A. There is only ONE GOD (Deut. 6:4; Isaiah 43:10; 44:6; Mark 12:29)

B. There are "so called" gods that are not really "gods" at all.
(1 Cor. 8:4-6; Jer. 10:10-11; Acts 14:11-15; 2 Cor. 4:4; Gal. 4:8)

C. The Father is THE God (John 17:3; 2 Peter 1:17)

D. The Son is THE God (John 1:1ff; 5:18; 8:58; 10:30-33; 20:28)

E. The Holy Spirit is THE God (Acts 5:3-4; 2 Cor. 3:17)

F. The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are personal and distinct.
(Mat. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; John 14:16)

G. Therefore, The ONE GOD is THREE PERSONS, The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit as revealed in the Bible.


GOD'S CHARACTER: The Ten Absolute Attributes of the Godhead

There are 10 absolute attributes of the Godhead.
All other character expressions fall directly under one of these 10.
A detailed analysis can be found under separate topics: example - GOD: The Love of God

1. God is sovereign: He has absolute authority to do as he pleases. Ps. 115:3

2. God is eternal, having no beginning or ending. Ps. 90:2

3. God is righteousness which means that He not only IS, but determines what is absolute right. Ps. 145:17

4. God is justice, which as the enforcer of His righteousness, is perfectly fair and impartial. Is. 30:18

5. God is omnipotent. Luke 1:37

6. God is omnipresent. Ps. 139:7f

7. God is omniscient. Is. 46A:9-10

8. God is love which means He places value on His creation and always seeks what is best for it - as he determines what is best. I Jn. 4:8

9. God is truth which indicates His natural integrity. Is. 65:16

10. God is immutable which indicates that His nature is unchangeable and produces His faithfulness. Malachi 3:6

11. Any other character expressions such as goodness, mercy, compassion, graciousness, kindness, etc., emanate directly from these 10.


God's Character (Summary)

A. The ten ABSOLUTE attributes of God.

1. God is ETERNAL: God has absolute existence. He has always existed and always will exist. Psalm 90:2; Isaiah 40:28; 57:15; Gen. 21:33; Isaiah 44:6; 48:12; Revelation 1:8, 12-18; 22:13; Psalm 10:16; 29:10; 93:2; Jer. 10:10; Lam. 5:19; Ps. 117:2; 118:29; 119:142

2. God is ALL POWERFUL (Omnipotent): God has absolute power. There is nothing that He cannot physically accomplish. However, God CANNOT violate His own character. Luke 1:37; Jeremiah 32:17, 27; Psalm 62:11; Isaiah 40:28; 43:13; Romans 4:21; Genesis 18:14

3. God is SOVEREIGN: God has absolute authority. His viewpoint and policy has final jurisdiction over the entire universe. Psalm 103:19; 115:3; 135:6; 1 Chronicles 29:11-13; 1 Samuel 2:6-8; Daniel 4:35; Isaiah 14:24, 27
God most high: Genesis 14:19; Psalm 47:2; 83:18; Daniel 4:17

4. God is RIGHTEOUSNESS: God's viewpoint is the absolute standard for right and wrong; good and bad; benefit and harm in the entire universe. Ps. 145:17; 119:137, 142; 129:4; 11:7; 97:2; 92:15; 111:3; 112:3; 7:9, 11; 33:5; Isaiah 45:21; Jeremiah 11:20; 50:7; Deut. 32:4; John 17:25; 2 Tim. 4:8; Zeph. 3:5

5. God is JUSTICE: Justice is an expression of God's sovereignty that enforces His righteousness. God is perfectly fair and impartial. Isaiah 30:18; Psalm 33:5; 37:28; 89:14; 97:2; 111:7; Jer. 9:24; Zephaniah 3:5; Job 34:12 37:23;

6. God is LOVE: God's love is constantly seeking what is beneficial to His creation without ever compromising His righteousness, justice or truth. 1 John 3:1; 4:8, 16; John 3:16; Romans 5:6;

7. God is ALL KNOWING (omniscient): God has absolute knowledge. He knows the end from the beginning; everything that will happen, could happen and every contingency. Isaiah 46:9-10; 40:28; Psalm 44:21; 33:13-15; 139:1-6; Matthew 6:8; 10:29-30; Prov. 15:11; 1 Chronicles 28:9; 1 Samuel 16:7; Revelation 2:23

8. God is ALL PRESENT (omnipresent): God exists everywhere in space and time, and cannot be limited to either. Jer. 23:24; 2Chron. 16:9; Ps. 139:7-10; 1 Kings 8:27;

9. God is TRUTH: God cannot lie, deceive or be duplicitous. Ps. 117:2; 119:142, 151, 160; Titus 1:2; Heb. 6:18; Numb. 23:19; Isaiah 65:16

10. God is UNCHANGING (immutable): God cannot violate any aspect of His character, but remains constant and precise in how He deals with His physical creatures. Mal. 3:6; Jam. 1:13; This makes God faithful in everything that He says and does: Psalm 33:4; 1 Cor. 1:9; Deut. 7:9; Isaiah 49:7; 1 Thess. 5:24;

B. The five FUNCTIONAL attributes of God.

1. God is COMPASSIONATE: God's compassion is the aspect of His knowledge and love which totally understands the condition and needs of His people, and seeks to alleviate them. Exodus 34:6; Psalm 25:6; 78:38; 86:15; 51:5; 119:56, 77; Jeremiah 42:12; Deuteronomy 4:31; Lamentations 3:22-23

2. God is GOOD: Goodness is the term that describes the FUNCTIONAL expression of God's love to man. It refers to the ACTION of love that constantly seeks that which is most beneficial to His creatures. Psalm 86:5; 34:8; 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1; 119:68; 135:3; 136:1; 145:9; Jeremiah 33:11; Nahum 1:7; Psalm 52:9; 54:6; 119:39; 109:21; 69:16; Exodus 33:19; 34:6;
Isaiah 63:7

3. The KINDNESS of God: Usually seen as "loving kindness," the word chesed, should be rendered as grace-kindness or grace provision. This word describes the actual Divine resources that God provides for His people in order to function in this world as His servants. Exodus 34:6: Psalm 86:15; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2; 1 Chron. 16:34; Psalm 32:10; 33:18, 22; 36:5, 7; 40:11; 57:10; 63:3; 69:16; 94:18-19; 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 108:4; 118:1-4, 29; 119:64; 136:1-26; 147:11;
Jeremiah 31:3; Lamentations 3:32; Psalm 57:10

4. God is GRACIOUS (mercy): Graciousness is the activity of God that makes available to man the solution to his pressures and needs in life (grace resources). Graciousness is expressed based on love and compassion, and is the act of fulfilling His kindness. Exodus 34:6; 22:27; Psalm 51:5; 86:15; 103:8; 111:4; 112:4; 116:5; 145:8; 2 Chronicles 30:9; Nehemiah 9:17; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2

5. God is PATIENT: God's patience is the application of His love, compassion and mercy to the human race which deserves immediate judgment It is expressed by the consistent, fair and repetitive proclamation of the gospel to the world. (1) Slow to anger: Ex. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Neh. 9:17; Ps. 86:15; 103:8; 145:8; Joel 2:13; Jon. 4:2; Nahum 1:3(2) Patience: Rom. 2:4; 1Tim. 1:16; 1Pet. 3:20; 2Pet. 3:9, 15

C. The absolute STATUS and perception of God in comparison with all other beings.
God is HOLY: God's holiness refers to the fact that He is unique as to His existence, His character, and His actions. The word group always speaks of a "separation" and "uniqueness" that sets apart what is HOLY far above all other things. God is HOLY because of His absolute character; a character that is divine in contrast to creatures who are finite. God is HOLY in contrast with other "gods" because He alone is GOD, while all others are false gods. Exodus 15:11; 1 Samuel 2:2; Isaiah 45:21; 5:16, 23; 57:15; 6:3; 44:6-8; 45:21; 46:8-9; Psalm 33:21; 111:9 60:6; 89:35; 108:7; Revelation 4:8p

Verse 6 And Yahweh was sorry
The Hebrew verb is nAacham.
Did God express sorrow about having created man on the earth?
Or did God change his mind about having created man on the earth?
There are two basic ideas with this verb, nAcham.
1. be sorry, which, when used of God is the anthropopathic expression of displeasure.
Jeremiah 13:14, “I shall not show pity nor be sorry (nAcham) nor have compassion.”
Ezek. 24:14, “I shall not relent and I shall not pity and I shall not be sorry (nAcham).

2. repent, which means to change the mind.
This is seen at Num 23:19, where no change of mind is possible for God.
It seems that this is also the meaning at Ex. 13:17, “lest they “change (their) mind” and return to Egypt.” But this could also be translated as be sorry and return.

Perhaps we should accept that there is a fine line between sorrow and a change of mind.
The question is whether the idea of changing the mind can be used of God.
He does however express great sorrow at the actions of His creation.

1. He cannot change His character. That is a given.
Mal. 3:6, but that is a different verb (shAnAh) and refers to the unconditional covenant with Israel.
Numbers 23:19 also refer to God’s plans for the nation of Israel.

2. Can He change his plans or actions? And is that a problem if he can or does?

3. We have statements that indicate God does not change His mind. But it seems that this is referring to specific things and not an absolute, as in it “never” happens.
At 1Sam, 1:29 and 15:29, clearly the idea of changing the mind is in view, and it is clearly stated that God does not CHANGE HIS MIND. But again, this seems to be referring to the specific promise in the context.
Jeremiah 4:27-28 refers to a SPECIFIC aspect of God’s plan that He declares will not change.

4. We have statements that indicate God does in fact change His mind.
Jeremiah 18:8-10 is talking about a temporal judgment or blessing pronounced by God upon a nation that is “changed” based on the positive or negative actions of the people involved.
Verse 8, “I will relent (nAcham).” Veerse 10, “I will relent of the good (nAcham).”

Jeremiah 26:13, amend your ways . . . and I will change my mind (nAcham).
Jeremiah 42:10, “I will relent (nAcham) concerning the calamity.”

Exodus 32:7-14. The Lord changed his mind after the intercession of Moses. But the thing that was changed was not a decree or a promise. It was a SUGGESTION.
Verse 10, “now let me alone that my anger may burn against them  . . . and I will make you into a nation.”
Now all of the above clearly should not be translated as being sorry.

At Genesis 6:6, if it is sorrow that is in view then it is an anthropopathism to communicate God's attitude toward the evil. An anthropopathism is a communication device that takes a human "character" expression which God does not possess and ascribes it to God, so that we can understand the "nature" of God's actions.

(1) sorry: nAcham (niphal imperfect consecutive).
(2) God cannot actually BE SAD. But He can certainly be displeased with the actions of His creation. Sorrow expresses this displeasure.
(3) The language is used to communicate Divine displeasure on the human level so that man will understand that he has violated Divine standards.

But we then have another statement that basically says the same thing, "and He was grieved in His heart." The verb is Atsabh (hithpael imperfect/consecutive). This word means to be pained or hurt.
If sorrow is in view with nAcham, then this word is an amplification of sorrow that intensifies how God’s attitude has changed concerning the human race.
Thus, another anthropopathism. God cannot be "unhappy." And He cannot actually feel pain. But he can certainly be displeased with the negative expressions of His creatures. Since God wants what is best for them, He can certainly be displeased when they miss out on His blessings.

But why the repetition? It seems to be unnecessary.
What if God actually did change His mind about this particular situation?
It could be stating a change in God’s original purpose for the Adamic civilization.
So I suggest: God had a plan for “made man on the earth.”
God's original intent was to have the human race continue until "the fullness of time" when He would bring the Messiah into the world. His plan was NOT to have Satan bring about this infiltration. BUT, God knew all about it from eternity past and incorporated Satan's act into His perfect plan.
So based on the corruption of humanity through the angelic infiltration, God changed His mind about “made man on the earth.” He now “adjusted” His plan using a new civilization built from Noah + 7.
This is no different than the other changes that God has made throughout history concerning various nations and peoples as already observed.

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: God's character applied to life

1. Because God is sovereign and IN CONTROL I can be at peace.

A. God will not let anything happen to me except what is best for His plan. Job 1:21; 2:10
B. Romans 8:28
C. God is the one making the decisions: not man; not angels 1 Chronicles 29:11-13

2. Because God is eternal; because He transcends all of time, His promises transcend time and give substance to the reality of my salvation.

A. Because He is eternal life, He can give life to others. 1 John 1:1-2; 5:11-12
B. His grace provision is everlasting. Psalm 118:29

3. Because God is RIGHTEOUS, I can count on consistency for how to relate to Him. Psalm 15

4. Because God is JUSTICE, I know I will be treated fairly - even in spite of my weaknesses. Isaiah 30:18; 1 John 1:9

5. Because God is LOVE, I know that His plan is the best thing for me. Romans 12:2

A. Motivation for salvation: Romans 5:8; John 3:16
B. I can know that He cares for me. 1 Peter 5:7
C. Divine discipline: Hebrews 12:6

6. Because God is OMNIPOTENT, I know that He is ABLE to meet my needs. Nothing is too difficult for God - Jeremiah 32:17

A. The enforcer of His sovereignty: Isaiah 43:13
B. Protection of salvation: John 10:27-30; 1 Peter 1:3-5
C. Physical protection: Daniel 3:17-18; Heb. 13:6

7. Because God is OMNISCIENT, I know that he understands.

A. Hebrews 4:12-16; Psalm 139:1-6
B. I know that He can SEE my needs. Mat. 6:32; Psalm 139:23-24
C. Strong support: 2 Chronicles 16:9

8. Because God is OMNIPRESENT, I know I will not be misplaced. Psalm 139:7-12

9. Because God is TRUTH, I know that can rely on His word.
God who cannot lie Titus 1:2; Heb. 6:18

10. Because God is UNCHANGING, I know that He will be faithful.

A. Salvation faithfulness: 1 Cor. 1:9; 1 Thes. 5:24
B. Faithful for assistance: 1 Cor. 10:13; 2 Thes. 3:3
C. Faithful for fellowship forgiveness: 1 John 1:9


GOD: The Almighty

1. God Almighty is a functional title of God that portrays Him as the source for all that we have or encounter in life.

A. Thus the idea of provider is associated with it.
B. And the idea of sufficiency is associated with it.

2. The title occurs 7 times as, "el shadday" or God Almighty, 6 times in the Torah (law) and 1 time at Ezekiel 10:5.

A. But 41 times as just "shadday," in which case it appears as "The Almighty."
B. 31 of those 41 are in the book of Job.

3. The title is related to one of two words.

A. shAdad, which means to be violently destructive.

1. Power, yes, but always in a destructive context.
2. Therefore, it seems unlikely to trace the meaning back to this root.

B. ShAdAh, which means to moisten, pour our, irrigate.

1. The noun from this verb is "shad," which is the word for a female breast.

2. Thus, the idea of provision and nourishment is communicated.

3. And it is much more likely that this is the root behind the title.

C. So the word suggests these translations:
The breasted one, the sufficient one, the provider.

1. Thus, el shadday = God the Provider
2. And, shadday = The Provider.

D. Comments on the LXX (The septuagint):

1. In the torah (law), it is rendered simply by the Greek, theos = God.

2. In Ruth, by the word "hikanos," = sufficient one
3. In Job, by 3 words -
kurios = Lord
pantokratōr = all mighty one
hikanos = sufficient one

4. What better way to communicate Divine provision and sufficiency than the term breast.

A. God is always using human terms , forms and analogies to communicate spiritual truth.

B. Even in the human realm, scripture uses the word breast to communicate prosperity.

1. Economic prosperity: Is. 60:16a
2. Spiritual prosperity: Is. 66:10-13

C. And in the case of God, the breast is a perfect illustration of His grace provision.

D. The nourishment from the breast is free to the body without merit or works -
Just as God's provision is always based on His character and plan and not on man's merits.

E. The breast provides pure, perfect nourishment, just as God's provision is always perfect.

F. The nourishment from the breast provides a protection from sickness, just as divine provision protects us from the sickness of the sin nature and the darkness system.

G. The nourishment from the breast is all the baby needs until weaned, just as God's provision is all we need for life and godliness during the time of our stay on earth.

5. Now even though the word, "shadday," relates to a female breast, neither this word nor the word for breast is feminine in form. Both are masculine.

A. But even if they were feminine in form, the gender distinction of words in the Hebrew are always an etymological and grammatical issue.

1. Thus, examples of feminine words: earth, soul, spirit, ear, righteousness, ground, end, truth, word, fire, arm, sweat, wall, stone, sword.

2. And masculine words: tent, light, food , idol, lion, rock , morning, flesh, joy, honey, sond, darkness, wine, salvation, money, heart, death, rain.

3. The point being, that none of these words have anything to do with the particular "gender" form in which they occur.

4. Some masculine nouns have a masculine form for the plural, and some feminine nouns have a masculine form for the plural.

5. The exception to gender being an issue in the case of words that deal with human relationships such as sister, brother, mother, father, man and woman.

B. Therefore, there is no attempt here to communicate a "femininity" within the Godhead. There is none.

C. The use of the word, breast, is an anthropopathism to relate the provision function of the breast to the spiritual realm and divine blessing without actually giving God breasts or a feminine essence.

D. The teaching that makes the above claim, saying that in this way God is able to better relate to women, misses several vital points of spiritual truth.

1. God has a masculine essence. That is, He is the sovereign of the universe, the authority over His domain and all are subject to Him.

2. And the human male was created to reflect that authority essence in all areas of his life. 1 Cor. 11:7

a. Over creation: Gen. 2:15-20
b. Over the woman: Gen. 2:21-23 with 3:16 and 1 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:12-13

3. God can totally understand and relate to the woman because He as the creator, has perfect wisdom and love. He does not need a "feminine" essence to do it.

4. God is everywhere in Scripture referred to in the masculine with masculine pronouns and never with feminine.

6. Some key passages that reflect the real significance of the sufficiency factor in this title.
Gen. 28:3-4; Gen. 49:25; Job 37:23; Psalm 91:1

7. The relationship of el shadday to Yahweh, in view of Ex. 6:3.

A. Yahweh is the personal name of the Godhead that communicates His absolute essence and existence.

B. The Almighty or the "provider" is a title that emphasizes a specific function of Yahweh. Ie, that of perfect provision and sufficiency.

C. The title that is used is what the speaker (or writer) is relating to in his personal experience at the time.

1. In the case of pre-Israel believers, the primary focus was on His blessing and provision, thus, "shadday."

2. In the case of the nation of Israel, the primary focus was on the absolute existence of God and the nation's relationship with Him.

D. Exodus 6:3 must be understood from this principle of emphasis and not as it appears literally, for the rest of the bible demands it that way.

1. Both names were known and used by believers before Ex. 6:3

2. In fact, Yahweh was used by Abraham first, and then God revealed his title, ie, the Provider - in connection with the covenant
of blessing. Gen. 12:8; 13:4; 14:22; 15:2, 6; Gen. 17:1-8.

E. The two titles are often used together after the statement of Ex. 6:3.

1. Balaam: Num. 24:3-6
2. Ruth 1:20-21
3. Psalm 91:1-2
4. Isaiah 13:6'
5. JOEL 1:15

F. The contrast in the Book of Job, where shadday occurs 31 times and Yahweh occurs 33 times:

1. The two are not used in the same context, but both are known and understood. Job 1:21; 12:9-10; 28:28

2. The principle of emphasis is still the issue.

a. Yahweh is the absolute entity of the universe.
b. The Provider is the title that expresses His actions of provision, blessing and discipline.


GOD is light

1. The statement of Divine essence: 1 John 1:5, "God is light."

A. 1 Tim. 6:16

1. Who dwells: oikeō, present active participle = dwelling
2. In unapproachable light: aprositos, communicates infinite essence in contrast to finite.

a. Absolute in contrast to relative
b. Perfect in contrast to imperfect.

3. Whom no one has seen: Exodus 33:18 through 34:7

a. V. 18, "show me your glory:" = absolute essence
b. V. 20, "you cannot see my face:" = glory or essence.
c. For no man can see me and live. finite vs. infinite.

4. What could be seen was a "reflection" of His glory (light).

a. V.19, "all my goodness:" = character attributes
b. v. 23, "my back parts:" indicates a reflection or shadow
c. v. 34:6, the character attributes which are described:
compassion, gracious, patience, provision and truth.
d. V. 34:7, "justice:" = either forgiveness or punishment.

2. And in Him is no darkness: 1 John 1:5
No sinfulness, no evil, therefore, absolute righteousness and uprightness: Ps. 92:15; Deut. 32:4

A. Explains Adam's reaction at Gen. 3:8-10 (fear and hiding)
B. Principle of 2 Cor. 6:14, no fellowship or partnership
C. Thus the barrier between God and man. Is. 59:1-2

1. Positional sin (In Adam): Rom. 5:12
2. Inherent sin (sin nature) : Psalm 51:5
3. Personal sin (acts) : Rom. 3:9-18

D. And the sin sacrifice: Ps. 22:1-3

3. The reflection of the light to mankind via the 2nd member of the Godhead:

A. Pre-incarnate: Doctrine of theophany (See topic)
B. The incarnation:

1. His person: Heb. 1:3
2. His message: Jn. 1 :1-14
3. The light of the world: John 8:12; 9:5
4. John 12:25-36
5. John 14:6-11


GOD: The compassion of God

1. Compassion is the aspect of God's omniscience and love that totally understands the condition and needs of His people and seeks to alleviate them.

2. Hebrew: rAchum = the quality of being objective, honest, understanding and helpful when faced with another's problems.

A. The adjective is only used of God, but the very is used of both God and man.
B. When used for God, it further amplifies God's love by emphasizing His character of understanding and the consistent follow-through of that understanding in meeting man's needs.

C. Noun: rachamiym = that which comes from the character of rAchum (compassionate). Always in the plural and refers to the expressions of compassion.
D. This word group is often rendered as "merciful" but compassion is the closer idea.

3. Statement of His character: rAchum occurs 13 times, but 11 of those are directly connected to channun (gracious).

A. Compassion is the understanding and caring
B. Gracious is the ACTION of giving assistance.
C. "loving kindness" (chesed) is the ACTUAL provision as designed by God's perfect wisdom and timing.
D. Ex. 34:6; Psalm 86:15

4. Compassion is the basis for grace provision (loving kindness, chesed).
Lam. 3:32; Jer. 31:3
See Topic: God: Kindness of God

5. Gracious is the ACT of providing the chesed.
See Topic: GOD: Graciousness of God

6. The character of compassion: Ps. 51:1; 119:77; Jer. 42:12; Deut. 4:31; Ps. 78:38

7. God's expressions of compassion are great in number. Psalm 119:56

8. They exist within God's character of eternal existence. Ps. 25:6

9. His compassions never fail. Lam. 3:22-23


GOD: The Eternity of God

1. Statement of absolute existence: Psalm 90.2

2. Absolute existence is inherent in the name Yahweh (Jehovah).

Exodus 3.14; Jn. 8.58

3. The title: God of eternity - Is. 40.28; Gen. 21.33

4. God's life will never end: Psalm 102.12, 27

5. God dwells in eternity (perpetuity). Is. 57.15

6. God is the First and the Last: Is. 44.6; 48.12; Rev. 1.8, 12-18; 22.13

7. The eternity of God related to sovereignty:

Ps. 10.16; 29.10; 93.2; Jer. 10.10; Lam. 5.19

8. God's truth is everlasting: Ps. 117.2

9. God's righteousness is everlasting: Ps. 119.142

10. Application: Deut. 33.26-27 (Heb. 13.5-6)

Psalm 118.29 - His grace provision (chesed) is everlasting


GOD: The eyes and ears of God

1. This is language of accommodation: anthropomorphism = ascribing to God a human characteristic which He does not have in order to understand Him from a human frame of reference.

A. Eyes: 39 times with quote at 1 Pet. 3:12 = 40
B. Ears: 36 times with quote at 1 Pet. 3:12 = 37

2. The Eyes of God:

A. Indicates the general omniscience of the Creator. Jer. 31:19; Pr. 5:21; 15:3; Heb. 4:13

B. Sometimes as an idiom to indicate God's standards for moral and spiritual living.
Deut. 13:18; 1 Kings 15:5; 16:25; Gen. 6:8; 2 Sam. 15:25-26 (Is. 3:8, the eyes of His glory).

C. Communicates administration of Divine justice toward creature arrogance. 2 Sam. 22:28

D. Used to indicate Divine provision and protection for the trusting believer.

1. Psalm 34:15 - the righteous
2. Ps. 33:18-22 - based on reverence and trust

a. protection in a physical crisis
b. protection in a food crisis

3. Support: 2 Chron. 16:9
4. Principle of Rom. 8:28 via Ps. 34:19

3. The Ears of God:

A. usually the same issue of prayer accessibility.

1. The righteous: Ps. 34:15b; Pr. 15:29
2. Humility: Job 35:9-13
3. Fellowship: Ps. 66:18; Pr. 28:9
4. In truth: Ps. 145:18-19
5. John 15:7 and 1 Jn. 3:22
6. Ritual without reality: Isaiah 1:10-15; 29:13
7. According to His will: 1 John 5:14

B. Used to indicate answered prayer: Ps. 18:6; 116:2; 2 Sam. 22:7

C. Used to indicate Divine awareness of creature rebellion.
Isaiah 37:28-29 - Sennacherib


GOD: The Goodness of God

1. Goodness is a term that describes the functional expression of God's love to man. The quality of His functional essence that constantly seeks that which is most beneficial to man.

2. God is good.

A. Psalm 86:5; 34:8; 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1; 119:68a; 135:3; 136:1; 145:9; Jer. 33:11; Nah. 1:7.

B. Good: tobh = pleasont, agreeable, acceptable, beautiful, advantageous, beneficial.

C. God is a doer of good. Ps. 119:68b

3. His name is good. Ps. 52:9; 54:6; Ex. 33:19; 34:6
"name" refers to his character. The character of God is of a beneficial nature.

4. His ordinances are good (beneficial). Ps. 119:39

5. His grace-kindness is good. Ps. 109:21; 69:16; Isaiah 63:7

6. From His goodness comes a proclamation of His word. Psalm 25:8; 138:2; 119:39

7. God's goodness is experienced fully - ONLY by the trusting believer. Lam. 3:25;
Psalm 34:8-10; 84:11; Rom. 8:28-32 cf. Gen. 50:20; Ps. 27:13-14

8. The believer has no real "good" (benefit) in life, apart from God (His character and plan).
Psalm 16:2; Prov. 4:13

9. The revelation of God's goodness in Ex. 33:19 is directly related to His graciousness and compassion which emanates from His love. (Eph. 2:4-5)
(Exodus 33:19, "all my goodness" = kol tobh)

10. Comment on Isaiah 45:7 (Is. 31:2; Amos 2:6):
"The One forming light and creating darkness,
causing (making) peace and creating evil."

A. "evil" = Hebrew ra which means that which is non-beneficial.
B. It does not mean "evil" but many times what is "non-beneficial" is viewed as evil.

C. Thus, the context must always be carefully evaluated.
D. "ra" in this context refers to the creating of a judgment upon a nation.
E. It is not "evil," but it is "non-beneficial" to that nation.
F. That is why the NASB translates the word as "calamity."

11. God's goodness must always be defined on HIS terms, not man's.

12. SEE topics GOD: graciousness, compassion, kindness, love


GOD: The Graciousness of God

1. Graciousness is the activity of God that makes available to man, the solution to his pressures and needs in life. Graciousness is God fulfilling His kindness (chesed) - His grace solutions and provisions to the one who is following God's truth in his life.

2. Hebrew word, channun, is a further expression of God's love. It's the natural follow-through from God's compassion.
It occurs as an adjective, 11 times directly connected with compassion.
(one time alone at Ex. 22:27).

3. Exodus 34:6-7

A. Compassionate is the sympathetic understanding of God's character concerning man.

B. Gracious is the action aspect of God's love; the mechanics of making solutions and provisions available to man.

C. Slow in anger is the action aspect of God's love from the negative standpoint.
God, holding back His expression of judgmental justice as long as possible.

D. So, gracious is God expressing favor to ones who only deserve judgment.

E. Abundant in loving kindness (chesed = grace provision) refers to the actual divine viewpoint solutions and provisions made available by God for man's needs and pressures in life.

F. And faithfulness (emeth = truth) indicates that there is no falsehood or deception but God is consistently dependable.

4. The graciousness of God is expressed through His kindness (chesed). Ps. 51:5

5. The kindness (grace provision) is based on love (Jer. 31:3) and compassion (Lam. 3:32).


GOD: The Guardian of our soul

1. 1 Peter 2:25, "But you have returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls."

2. The word "guardian" is episkopos and is translated "bishop" and "overseer" as one who watches over another for his personal welfare and protection. Therefore, the idea of "guardian."

CF. Acts 20:28-31 where we see the "pastor" or "elder" as the one who is the overseer of the church.

3. In the context of 1 Pet. 2:25, shepherd (poimān) relates to feeding and fellowship. Bishop relates specifically to protection.

4. So, not only have we come under the supernatural care of our heavenly Shepherd, but also the supernatural protection of our heavenly Guardian.

5. The first area of protection is our salvation security.

1 Pet. 1:3-5; John 10:27-29; 1 Thes. 5:24

6. Protection of our physical life through guardian angels:

Heb. 1:14; Mat. 18:10; Ps. 116:15

(This is of course, lifted when the believer comes under divine discipline)

7. Protection of our soul through provision of spiritual truth. John 17:17; Eph. 4:11-14

8. Protection through knowledge and application of the character of God. Pr. 18:10

"The name (character) of Yahweh is a strong tower, the righteous run into it and are safe.

9. Protection from soul slavery through the word. Jn. 8:32-33; Gal. 5:1; James 1:21-25

10. Protection from fear through claiming promises:

Rom. 8:15; 2 Tim. 1:7; Rom. 15:13 (elpis); Prov. 1:33

11. The Psalms of divine protection: Psalm 91 and 121


GOD: The Holiness of God

1. The word, "holy."

A. Hebrew word: qAdōsh and derivatives
B. Greek word: hagios and derivatives
C. Both mean: set apart and distinguished as unique and special.
To separate and dedicate to a special position or function.

D. The reason for the dedication and the quality of the dedication is indicated by the context.

2. God's holiness refers to His uniqueness or "set apartness" in comparison to man-made gods.
Exodus 15:11; 1 Sam. 2:2

The term holy, sets God up as above all man-made gods and indicates God as the one and only God because of His perfect character or essence.

3. Holy refers to His perfect character.

A. Sometimes the entire character is in view. Is. 5:23; 57:15
B. Sometimes only righteousness and justice are in view. Is. 5:16

4. The phrase, His holy Name, does not refer to His "title" but to the character or essence or "reputation" behind the title. The phrase focuses attention on "WHO" He is, not on what He is called. Ps. 33:21; 111:9

5. Proclamations of holiness ascribed to God are man's mental and verbal expressions of recognition and acceptance of His character and plan.
Thanksgiving and praise activities all bring attention to Him. Zech. 14:20; Ps. 103:1; 105:3; 106:47; (Isaiah 6:5 = angels).

6. God speaks in His holiness. Ps. 60:6; 89:35; 108:7

A. He speaks from the standpoint of His perfect and unique character.
B. The emphasis in on the fact that when God speaks, it is final, because He alone is God. Is. 44:6-8; 45:21; 46:8-10; 14:24, 27

7. The Holy One of Israel: Ps. 60:6; 89:35; 108:7

A. A title for the Messiah as being sent from God, and in fact, being equal with God. Is. 41:1-20; (14, 16, 20) total 25 times in Isaiah.

B. New Testament: we find, "the Holy One of God (the Father).
only occurs at Mark 1:24 and Luke 4:34

8. The Holy Spirit:

A. Holy = adjective = qōdesh = unique and special, and in fact, full equality with the essence of deity.

B.ruach: = breathing, influence or force.
C. It refers to the 3rd member of the Godhead, who represents the Godhead to man through the ministry of conviction

D. Is. 63:10-11; Ps. 51:11

10. The injunction to believers based on god's holiness.

A.. Believers are to be Holy as God is Holy. Lev. 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:26; 1 Pet. 1:15-16

B. This is fulfilled by the believer reflecting in his life the character qualities that conform to God's standards of thinking .

C. The standard which is our example is Love. Lev. 19:18; Mat. 22:36-40; Rom. 13:8-10.

D. And Jesus Christ is the bearer of that example. Eph. 5:1-2; John 15:12-13

E. Heb. 12:10: That we might share his holiness. 2 Cor. 7:1

F. This is imitation and refers to both moral and spiritual character.



1. God designed and created man in His own image.

A. Gen. 1:26 - AsAh = the design (create out of something, make)
B. Gen. 1:27 - bArA = the act of creation (create out of nothing)

2. The words, "image and likeness" are used to indicate two different factors concerning the "image" of God.

A. Image is the word, tselem and always indicates a "physical" or structural image of some kind.

B. Likeness is the word, demuth. The root, DMH, usually refers to some kind of "functional" image, likeness or expression.

1. A few times it is used to indicate a "physical" form.
2. This has led some to claim that there is no distinction between the two words, tselem and demuth, and that one should not be made.

3. However, when all the uses are observed, there is a discernible difference which certainly needs to be preserved especially when the two words are used together as they are at Gen. 1:26.

4. Actually, this is not unusual for other words that are close in meaning.

C. SEE detailed word study on these two words and their derivatives.

3. What is the image of God?

A. Genesis 1:26-27 summarizes the creation of man, male and female on day six of God's restoration program for the earth (See Topic: The Gap), and tells us that he is created in the image and form of God.

B. Genesis 1:2-2:3 is a summary of the six days of restoration and new creation, including day seven.

C. Adam, all by himself, without other members of the human race, is created in this "image of God." But since all come out from Adam, they share His image (Gen. 5:3), which is Adam's created image with the addition of a sin nature.

See Topic: The Sin Nature

D. Adam is a unified being, but is composed of three expressions within that unity (1 Thes. 5:23). Genesis 2:7 details the mechanics of creating the man on day six.

1. Nostrils: refers to the physical body.

2. breath of life: neshAmAh which corresponds with spirit (ruach) at Gen. 7:22 (neshAmAh of the spirit); the human spirit.

3. Living soul: refers to the soul (nephesh).

E. Man's creation in the "image" of God is inferior to angelic creation, so the "image" does not bestow on man any "structural" characteristics of angels. (Heb. 2:7; Ps. 8:5).

F. The "our image" of Genesis 1:26 would be the image of the Godhead.

1. Obviously, the "image" does not include deity characteristics.

2. The image (tselem) refers to the Godhead from the standpoint of His "physical" structure. However, God is a Spirit being (John 4:24) and is not "physical" in the same sense that we are.
However, there is a distinct structure to the Godhead in regard to how He manifests Himself to His creation. This is His "structural" image.

3. Deuteronomy 6:4 explains this "image" as a unity of divine personalities. "Yahweh our Gods (elohim), Yahweh, a Unity."

4. The plural structure of the Godhead is:

a. The Father: He is designated as God Most High in the Old Testament and functions as the planner and ultimate authority within the Godhead. The "authority" expression of the Godhead.

b. The Son: He is not "officially" designated as the Son in the Old Testament, but is recognized as the revealed member of the Godhead; the visible manifestation of the Godhead to the human race. The "visible" expression of the Godhead.

c. The Spirit: He is the "power" expression of the Godhead.
He is the one who reveals, moves, empowers and inspires.

5. See Topic: Beginnings: Orientation to the Godhead

G. Man's created status, in the image of God, is as a triune being. 1 Thes. 5:23

1. Soul: This is the controller of the unity and corresponds with the Father.

2. Body: This is the visible manifestation of the unity and corresponds to the Son.

3. Spirit: This is the reflector of the soul; the element that reveals the character of the soul as personality. It corresponds to the Holy Spirit.


4. The image of God is shared by both male and female. Gen. 1:27 with 5:1-2

A. Adam directly: Gen. 2:7
B. Ishah indirectly through Adam: Gen. 2:21-22

5. Adam and Ishah, both created in the image of God, were designed to bring honor and glory to God's character and plan.

A. Initially through expressing the natural soul attitudes created by God. This was evidenced through adherence to the "one-tree prohibition" in the garden.

B. After the fall, through acceptance of God's salvation provision and adherence to the light system throughout their lives.

1. Moral truth designed by God for the whole human race.
2. Spiritual truth designed for those in relationship with Him.

6. The image of God was not lost at the fall.

A. At Gen. 9:6, the prohibition against murder has impact because people who are killed HAVE BEEN CREATED in the image of God with the result that at the time they are killed, they are in that image.

B. At James 3:9, the indictment on cursing men has impact because those people who are cursed HAVE BEEN MADE in the image of God, with the result that at the time they are cursed they are still in that image.

C. At 1 Cor. 11:7, the teaching that the man is not to have his head covered, is symbolic of his original created status which he STILL possesses - in the image and glory of God. Here, the word, image, refers to the structural image of the Godhead, and the word, glory, refers to the functional image of God (designed to glorify Him).

D. The above passages establish the fact that mankind is still in the same image with which he was created. It was neither lost nor diminished when Adam and Ishah sinned. What happened is that their ENTIRE being, body, soul and spirit, all came under the condition of spiritual death and lost relationship with God.

7. The bible does not teach that the human spirit was somehow lost or rendered inoperative after Adam's sin. Quite the opposite, it is clearly established that all men have a human spirit, fully functional in its original design.

A. The error occurs through the assumption that the human spirit is that entity through which man relates to God, but this is not supported by Scripture.

B. There is no part of man that is specifically designated as that which relates to God. Man relates to God through his entire being (body, soul and spirit).

C. The "spiritual" death of man is that which permeates his entire being, not just his human spirit. The reason the word "spiritual death" is used is not because it has the "spirit" in view, but because it has in view man's relationship with God on a "spiritual" plane. God is Spirit, and man has lost his capacity to fellowship with God, The Spirit, thus, spiritually dead.

D. SEE Topic: The Human Spirit for a detailed study.
E. See Topic: Spiritual Death


8. The "form" of God, using the word demuth, deals more with a "functional" image rather than the structure of the Godhead. It should be translated as likeness rather than form.

A. Since that "function" can not be deity function, it must be a reflection of some aspect of deity. The most reasonable is to see that likeness as a reflection of God's revealed standards for the function of the human creature.

B. That function can be reasonably suggested as a character format placed into the soul of Adam and passed on to all his children.

C. Orientation to the natural design in the soul. Ec. 7:29 (yAshAr).
Man's soul was designed with an "upright" character structure.

1. This indicates a soul function of relating everything in man's environment to God as the only reference point. God is the center of all existence and the object of all activity in both areas of life.

a. Spiritual life: relationship and fellowship with God

b. Morality life: fellowship with man. Centered around the issues of personal freedom and marriage. The other two areas of morality (family and society) are simply an extension of these two. Gen. 2:18-20; Ec. 7:29a; Rom. 2:14

2. Self-consciousness and volition were designed to take all knowledge and experience and relate it directly to God through soul attitudes which by nature are "God-centered."

3. There are 7 basic attitudes in the soul, all of which directly reflect God's attitude. In this way, man's person functions as the likeness of God just as he IS in created status.
When he functions as the image of God it is called being "the glory of God" as at 1 Cor. 11:7, and is described by the Hebrew word, demuth (functional form or likeness), at Gen. 1:26-27.

a. RESPECT: God has total respect for and confidence in His own perfection. Isaiah 43:10-13
The design in man's soul reflects this by having the grace perspective; the perspective that recognizes the greatness and magnitude of God and "self" as a creature.

b. LOVE: God loves His own character: Psalm 33:5a He recognizes the absolute value in Himself and is dedicated to promoting that value in the universe.
Man's soul was designed to reflect that by placing the highest value on God's character and plan, and by promoting it as the most important thing in life.

c. PRIDE: Pride is God's recognition of His own perfection. It is Divine self-esteem. Ex. 15:7; Isaiah 46:9
Man was designed to reflect that through placing total confidence in Him; boasting in Him, which is praise and thanksgiving that shows appreciation for who He is and what He has accomplished.

d. AMBITION: This is God's perfect desire to promote His character and plan in the eyes of His creatures and to carry out His plan for the universe. Is. 46:10.
Man's soul reflects this by seeking to promote that divine plan in everything he does. The purpose for all of man's earthly activity is to promote that plan. This then serves as man's motivation for service and fulfills Gen. 1:28, and in the garden it fulfilled Gen. 2:15, "cultivate and guard."

e. HATE: Hate is the natural attitude that comes from perfect righteousness. God's mentality rejects anything that is contrary to that righteousness. Ps. 5:4-6
Man's soul is designed to express that same attitude of rejection whenever it encounters darkness viewpoint.

f. JEALOUSY: This is God's protectiveness of His divine essence and plan, Ex. 20:5. Not that God needs protection, but it is the value of divine essence held by His creatures that is protected since Satan's antagonism is constantly seeking to discredit God's essence and plan.
Man's soul was designed to promote the cause of divine truth and strongly oppose any manifestation of darkness viewpoint.

g. ANGER: Anger as a natural expression from hate, is the verbal and active manifestation of righteousness and justice. Ex. 15:7
Man's soul is designed to express that same disapproval whenever divine standards are violated.

4. All these attitudes were used to please God and establish rapport and fellowship with Him. They reflected God's glory by expressing viewpoint compatible with Him. Thus, the principle of agreement with divine standards for fellowship.

9. After their fall through disobedience to God in the garden, Adam and Ishah acquired a genetic mutation in their mentality which can be designated as a "sin nature." See Topic: The Sin Nature

A. This mutation now gives a distorted influence to the original "upright" design in the soul, but the design is still present in every member of the human race.

B. The result is that in many cultures, people have an inner conviction of morality that parallels the standards of the written law that God gave to Israel in the form of the ten commandments (Romans 2:14).

C. However, that design is seriously hampered from natural expression because the self- centeredness of the sin nature is now dominant in mankind (Ec. 7:29, "sought out many devices").

D. Moral training helps deter the overt "immoral" expression of the sin nature and provides a reinforcement to the natural design, so that a general moral freedom and stability is available to the human race (Prov. 22:15).

E. But such training does not guarantee a deterrent nor does it make one more receptive to spiritual values.

10. The spiritual side of the natural design (directed toward God) is dormant until God triggers it through the revealing of his person and work.

A. This is done in two stages:

1. God consciousness: God so uses the phenomena of the physical world to impress upon the soul of man the existence and magnitude of the creator. (Rom. 1:19-21; Ps. 19:1-6; Acts 14:17; 17:26-27; Rom. 10:18).
There are a variety of other factors that awaken an awareness of God within the soul of man, all of which, convict man to seek for God (Acts 17:27) and pave the way for hearing the gospel.

See Topic: God Consciousness

2. Gospel hearing: God provides specific gospel information to those who express a "seeking" for God after becoming aware of Him through the God-consciousness phenomena.

a. This is called the convicting ministry of the Holy Spirit (John 16:9-11).
b. And the drawing of God (John 12:32; 6:44).

B. When a person hears the gospel he must choose either to reject or accept the promise of salvation proffered therein (John 3:36).

C. When a person trusts in Christ (believes the gospel), he is immediately given spiritual life by the Holy Spirit and the natural design in the soul is now able to be cultivated and strengthened through spiritual growth (1 Pet. 2:2; 3:18; Eph. 4:20-24).

11. After salvation, the functional expression of God's "likeness" (character reflection) that brings glory to Him, is cultivated through spiritual growth.

A. Accordingly, the believer is exhorted to cease from sin since he has been delivered from the kingdom of darkness (Col. 1:13) and has become a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17) and has positionally (in Christ) put on a new man (Col. 3:8-10).

B. The positional "new man" is experientially being built up (renewed) through growth according to the image (character standards) of God.

C. At Col. 3:10, the phrase, "have put on" (aorist tense), refers to the positional status of the new creation. The phrase, "is being renewed" (present tense), refers to the experiential progress of growth unto full knowledge (maturity).

D. At Ephesians 4:20-24, the believer is likewise exhorted to "put on" the new man. Here Paul refers to the experiential reflection of the positional new man that the believer became at the moment he trusted in Christ. Paul gives us two ideas: (1) The believer HAS put on the new man because he is in union with Christ. (2) The believer needs to put on experientially, a reflection of that new man through fellowship and growth.

The new man that he is exhorted to put on, "is" (not, has been) created in righteousness and holiness by the truth.
The aorist tense in the participle form does not require a "past tense" or "completed" idea, but rather, it takes on a time significance based on context.

In principle, the new man IS created within the soul of the believer, here on earth, as he learns and utilizes the knowledge standards of God's viewpoint.

E. This is what is in view at 2 Cor. 3:18, "being transformed into the same image (glory). ."

1. Reference to the growth process which produces in the believer a reflection of God's glory (His "integrity" attributes).

2. This then is not a reference to the original "structural" image of God, but a reflection of and fulfillment of the "functional" image of God (His righteousness and love).

3. It refers to character reflection through knowledge and application of Bible truth.

See Topic: Spiritual growth

12. There is a third aspect to sharing God's image, or more specifically, the image of the Son, and that is when through resurrection, the believer will possess a physical body exactly like Christ's resurrection body. This is called, "conformed to the image of His Son," at Romans 8:29. The term, first born among many brethren" refers to physical resurrection.

See Topic: CHRIST: The Beginning of the Creation of God


GOD the Judge

1. He is the judge of our life: Heb. 12:23
Both in time and in eternity

2. See topic: God the Evaluator

3. Evaluation in time is based on dedication to divine design.
Knowledge and application of truth in our life. 2 Chron. 16:9; Ps. 33:13-22

4. We must give account. Take responsibility for what we do in time.
The principle of applied consequences. Col. 3:24-25

5. The law of sowing and reaping: Gal. 6:3-10

6. Even Romans 8:28 is governed by our response to truth. "to those who love Him."

7. The issue of discipline is judgment from God's love. Heb. 12:4-13; 1 Cor. 11:27-34

8. At the rapture of the church, God's evaluation will be based on divine good production here on earth. 2 Cor. 5:9-11; Rom. 14:10-12; 1 Cor. 3:10-15

9. The administrator of God's judgment is Jesus Christ. John 5:21-29

A. Reward seat of Christ: 2 Cor. 5:10
B. Judgment at Armageddon: Rev. 19:11-16


GOD: Justice of God

1. Justice is the aspect of God's character that enforces the perfect standards of Divine righteousness. Justice rewards and justice judges. Ps. 51:1

2. The God of justice: Isaiah 30:18

3. God loves justice. Ps. 33:5; 37:28

4. God works justice and delights in justice. Jer. 9:24

5. Justice is the foundation of His throne. Psalm 89:14; 97:2

6. His works are truth and justice. Psalm 111:7

7. God's justice is based on truth and righteousness. Ps. 19:9

8. Faithfulness related to Justice: Zeph. 3:5

9. God always expresses justice without compromise. Job 34:12; 37:23

10. Justice related to salvation security: Rom. 8:33-39, "It is God who justifies."

11. Justice related to moral integrity: 2 Chron. 19:5-7; Deut. 10:17

12. We must trust with absolute confidence that God deals with us at all times in perfect fairness according to His perfect wisdom and love. (compassion, mercy and grace provision)


GOD: the Kindness of God

1. Kindness is a word that describes the divine solutions provided for man's pressures and needs in life.

A. God is omniscient and perfect love.
B. From these come God's compassion (rAchum): knowledge and concern.
C. Compassion then provides a plan: solutions to man's needs. This is called chesed = grace kindness or provision.

D. God's chesed (divine solution or provision) is then made available to man as, "grace" or "graciousness" (channun).

2. Statement of God's grace kindness: Ex. 34:6; Ps. 86:15; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2
chesed - basically means goodness or kindness.
Jer. 9:24, God, "performs grace-kindness, justice and righteousness on the earth."

3. The kindness of god is eternal. 1 Chron. 16:34; Ps. 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1-4, 29; 136:1-2, 6

4. It is based on God's love and compassion. Jer. 31:3; Lam. 3:32

5. It is un-measurable and unlimited: Ps. 57:10; 36:5; 108:4; Lam 3:22
Ps. 117:2, "Great toward us."
Ps. 119:64, "the earth is full of chesed."

6. It is good (tobh). Ps. 69:16 = totally beneficent according to God's standards.

7. Thus, it is better than life. Ps. 63:3 (tobh) and valuable, Ps. 36:7.

8. The fact that "with God is grace provision" should motivate the believer to trust.

9. But the benefit of God's kindness (divine solutions for life) only become a reality in the life of the believer as he adheres to divine design "in fellowship" with God. (love and trust)
Ex. 20:6, "love;" 1 Kings 8:23; Neh. 1:5; Ps. 25:10; 103:11, 17; 86:5
Deut. 5:10; 7:9, 12; Prov. 14:22

10. Pertinent promises concerning the kindness of God.
Psalm 32:10; 33:18, 22; 94:18-19; 147:11; 40:11


GOD: the Knowledge of God

1. God has absolute knowledge. Is. 46:9-10; 40:28

2. Knowledge that cannot be opposed. Proverbs 21:30

3. Knowledge that knows the intricate details of all creation. Heb. 4:13; Mat. 10:29-30

4. Knowledge that sees the hearts of men: Ps. 44:21; Pr. 15:11; 1 Chron.28:9; 1 Sam. 16:7; Rev. 2:23

5. Knowledge that sees every detail in man's life. Ps. 33:13-15; 139:1-6; Mt. 6:8

6. Knowledge that dictated the creation of the universe. Jer. 10:12

7. Knowledge that is based on absolute presence. Ps. 139:7-10; Jer. 23:24

8. The principle of foreknowledge:

A. Salvation: Rom. 8:29; 1 Pet. 1:2, 20
B. Experience: Mat. 6:8, 32
C. See topic: Foreknowledge

9. Application to the believer in the Christian way of life:
2 Chron. 16:9; Ps. 31:15; Rom. 8:28; Mat. 6:31-33; Heb. 13:5-6; Ps. 139:1-4, 13-16, Therefore, v. 23-24.


GOD: The Love of God

1. God's love is that expression of His essence that is totally relaxed toward His entire creation and is constantly seeking its benefit, while always acting in complete agreement with His righteousness and justice. Psalm 33:5

2. God's character is perfect love: 1 John 4:8, 16

3. God's love expressed toward His own essence: Ps. 33:5; 37:28

4. God's love was first expressed to man in the garden of Eden where He provided Adam and Eve with everything they needed to be happy and content in relationship with Him.

5. After the fall of man, God's love was expressed by providing the plan of salvation through the promise of a savior. Gen. 3:15 + animal sacrifices.

6. God's love was further expressed to fallen man by providing the laws of divine morality for order and stability in society. Acts 17:26-27

7. God's love expressed through the fulfillment of the plan of salvation:

A. Sending His son: 1 John 4:9-10
B. Giving His son: John 3:16
C. Not sparing His son: Rom. 8:32; Mat. 26:39
D. While man was dead in sin: Eph. 2:4-5
E. While mankind was sinners and enemies: Rom. 5:6-10
F. By making us children of God: 1 John 3:1
G. By giving us eternal comfort: 2 Thes. 2:16

8. The alternative to God's love:

A. God's love is consistent with His righteousness and justice. Deut. 32:4; Ps. 33:5

B. Justice demands a penalty for sin: Rom. 6:23

1. Love pays the penalty
2. But man must accept the grace payment on his behalf. Jn. 3:18, 36; 8:21-24.

3. God is "just" to love: accept and forgive and give eternal life
4. God is "just" to hate: reject, judge and and carry out the penalty.

C. So the alternative is to keep the appointment with judgment that has been arranged for the human race. Heb. 9:27; Rom. 8:1; Mat. 25:41

D. Jacob have I love and Esau have I hated: Mal. 1:2-3
But this is based on choices that they made.

E. The two choices are very real. And since God desires the very best for man, love makes the issues of the two choices perfectly clear throughout man's history.

9. God's love expressed through providing information for all the world.

A. 2 Pet. 3:18; 1 Tim. 2:4
B. The three revelations of Psalm 19:1ff
C. The gospel: Rom. 1:16; Col. 1:23

10. God's love to the believer: Relationship love - Col. 3:12, "beloved"

A. He loves the righteous: Ps. 11:7; 1465:8; John 17:23
B. Provision to live the Christian way of life: Rom. 8:32; 2 Pet. 1:3-4
C. Love expressed to the believer who is following His word.

1. John 14:21, 23; 17:26
2. John 16:27 (phileō); John 15:14-15

D. Love expressed to a grace-oriented giver: 2 Cor. 9:7
E. Divine discipline is based on God's love for his child (in the family).
Hebrews 12:6 (Proverbs 3:12);
Therefore, Hebrews 12:5-13.

F. The security of salvation is based on love. Rom. 8:38-39

11. God's love to us is our example of expressing love to others. 1 Jn. 4:11; Rom. 15:1-3;
Gal. 6:1-2; Eph. 4:32 through 5:1.

12. God's love to the believer in eternity: Fulfillment of all the salvation promises. 1 Pet. 1:3-5

13. God's love to Israel: Is. 63:9; Deut. 7:8; Hos. 11:4; Jer. 31:3; Deut. 23:4; Ps. 87:2
1 Kings 10:9; 2 Chron. 2:11; 9:8; Isaiah 43:4; Even in rebellion, Hos. 3:1 cf. 9:15-17.

14. God's love expressed to the Christ:

A. From before the foundation of the world: John 17:24
B. At the baptism: Mat. 3:17
C. During His ministry: Jn. 3:35; 5:20; 15:9
D. At the transfiguration: Mat. 17:5; 2 Pet. 1:17
E. Response to His ultimate fulfillment of the Divine plan: John 10:17

15. Christ's love expressed to the world: Jn. 15:13; 2 Cor. 5:14; 8:9; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:2, 25;
1 John 3:16; Heb. 12:2

16. From God's love and from His omniscience come God's compassion, kind-provision and graciousness. Ps. 51:1; Jer. 31:3; Lam. 3:32

17. God's love expressed to man is described by the term "goodness."
the quality of being totally beneficent.

18. See topics: GOD: kindness, graciousness, compassion, goodness


GOD: Orientation to God's hate

A. What God hates:

1. Proverbs 8:13, God's wisdom (personified) hates -

a. Pride: gāAh - from gAAh = to rise up. Speaks of self-centeredness.

b. Arrogance: gAōn = exaltation. Intensity of pride into arrogant self-promotion.

c. The way of evil: derek + ra = the way of life which promotes self at the expense of others.

d. The mouth of perversities: tahpukAh = verbal rebellion, revolution against God's spiritual and moral standards.

2. Idolatry: Deut. 12:31; 16:22; Jer. 44:1-4
3. Ritual without reality: Is. 1:13-14; Amos 5:21-23; Is. 61:8
4. The arrogance of Jacob: Amos 6:8
5. Divorce: Mal. 2:16
6. Proverbs 6:16 - these 6 things

a. arrogant eyes: rum = exalted
b. a tongue of deception: sheqer
c. murder
d. devising schemes of wickedness: mental attitude sins of aggression.
e. feet running to evil: over anarchy and crime
f. false witness
g. spreading strife: gossip, maligning, etc.
h. Here we have the correlation between "hate" and "abomination."
Basically, the two communicate the same idea of God's displeasure.

B. What God abominates: noun = tōābhAh = abomination

1. Lev. 18:1-26 - All activity of the "sex" cult.
2. Deut. 7:25 - idol images; v. 27:15
3. Deut. 18:9-12 - all occult activity
4. Deut. 22:5 - "opposite" clothing (keep in the cultural, national context)
5. Deut. 23:18 - offering to God a harlot's wages
6. Deut. 24:4 - remarriage to an ex-spouse after a divorce and remarriage
7. Deut. 25:13-16 - dishonest business practices; Prov. 11:1; 20:10, 23
8. Prov. 11:20 - the perverse heart
9. Prov. 12:22 - lying lips
10. Prov. 15:8; 21:27 - the sacrifice of the wicked
11. Prov. 15:9 - the way of life of the wicked
12. Prov. 15:26 - evil plans
13. Prov. 28:9 - the prayer of someone who rejects God's word.

C. What is evil (ra) in God's sight is called detestable: Jer. 7:30
(shiqquts - refers to idolatry activity)

1. Deut. 29:14-18
2. Specific idol gods: 1 Kings 11:5, 7; 2 Kings 23:13
3. Jer. 13:27 - sexual immorality in an idolatry context
4. Isaiah 66:3-4

D. WHO God hates:

1. Psalm 5:5 - all who do iniquity
2. Idolaters:

a. Canaanites: Lev. 20:23
b. Israel: Lev. 26:30; Ps. 78:58-59; 106:40

3. Israel because of rebellion: Jer. 12:8
4. The "Exodus" generation: Ps. 95:10
5. Psalm 5:6 - the man of bloodshed (murderer)
6. Psalm 11:5 - the one who loves violence
7. Zech. 8:17 - those who devise evil in the heart and those who love perjury
(making an oat of deception)

8. Malachi 1:3; Rom. 9:13 - Esau (because of his "unbeliever" status)

E. WHO God abominates:

1. Proverbs 3:32 - morally deviant man
2. Proverbs 16:5 - everyone who is proud in heart
3. Proverbs 17:15 - everyone who justifies the wicked and who condemns the righteous.

F. The Messiah:

1. During His ministry: Ps. 45:7; Heb. 1:9 - hated lawlessness
2. Attitude as He is seated at the right hand of the Father: Rev. 2:6 -
The deeds of the Nicolaitans.

The Nicolaitans were an apostate sect which arose in the early church and advocated participation in idolatrous festivals and immorality as indicated by the language of Rev. 2:14-15. Most authorities believe it was founded by Nicolas, the deacon of Acts 6:5, but it cannot be proven.



1. The title elyon (most high) proclaims and emphasizes the absolute authority of God as the sovereign over all things.

A. Ps. 103.19

B. Ps. 83.18

C. Ps. 92.8 , merom leolAm

2. First occurrence: Gen. 14.18-22

A. Possessor: qAnAh - qal active participle, to get, acquire. This speaks of origin and creation and ownership and control

B. of heaven: plural - shAmayim - the heavens

1. Speaks of the spiritual realm as well as the physical realm outside of earth.

2. And it speaks of the spiritual blessings of which God is the source.

C. And earth: erets - speaks of the physical realm and the material blessings of which God is the source.

D. Absolute authority via Nebuchadnezzar's testimony:

Daniel 4.1-3, 17, 34-35

3. Comparison of titles: Numbers 24.16

A. Hears the words of El -

1. speaks of power

2. shAma - factual perception

B. knows the knowledge of the Most High:

1. speaks of absolute authority

2. yAda + daath indicates orientation to Divine viewpoint

C. sees the vision of the Almighty:

1. Shadday - speaks of perfect provision

2. chAzAh + machazeh indicates the recipient of Divine revelation.

4. It is the Most High's authority which proclaims judgment on the pre-Adamic earth. Psalm 18.7-15

5. It is the Most High whom Satan seeks to dethrone and replace. Is. 14.14

6. The sovereign plan of the Most High for Israel:

A. Israel and the nations: Deut. 32.8

B. Ps. 49.1-4

C. Ps. 87.1-5

7. Title is used in the context of Israel's rebellion: Ps. 78.17, 56; 107.11

8. The Most High is to be feared: Ps. 47.2

9. The Most High is to be worshiped and trusted: Ps. 50.14-15

10. The Most High manages his plan for the believer. Ps. 57.2

A. His chesed (grace provision) and emeth (truth): Ps. 57.3

B. His chesed: Ps. 21.7

C. His chesed and emunAh (faithfulness): Ps. 92.2

D. Protection in time: Ps. 91.1-10


GOD: The Power of God

1. Power belongs to God. Ps. 62:11

2. Power that is not limited: Jer. 32:17, 27; Lk. 1:37

3. Power that does not diminish: Is. 40:28

4. Power that can not be neutralized: Is. 43:13

5. Power that enforces God's promises: Rom. 4:21; Gen. 18:14
(Enforces His character)

6. Examples of Divine Power:

A. Creation: Jer. 27:5; 32:17
B. Red Sea: Ps. 77:15-20
C. Assyrian Army: Isaiah 37:36-37
D. Furnace of Fire: Dan. 3:22-25, 27
E. Resurrection of Christ: Rom. 1:4; Eph. 1:19-20

7. Application of the Power of God to the Christian way of life.

A. Salvation protection: 1 Pet. 1:3-5
B. Physical protection: Dan. 3:16-18; Heb. 13:6
C. God's promises: Rom. 4:21
Power to meet our needs: basically "faith-rest."
Eph. 3:20; Heb. 13:6; Rom. 8:31

D. Power of God for service.

1. Acts 1:8; 2 Cor. 3:2-6
2. Eph. 3:7; 1 Cor. 12:7, 11
3. The gospel: Rom. 1:16 cf Mat. 19:23-26
4. Eph. 1:18-20; Rom. 8:31


GOD: The Righteousness of God

1. Basic definition: Righteousness refers to the absolute standards of right and wrong; good and bad from the perspective of God's viewpoint.

2. God is righteous: Is. 45:21; Deut. 32:4; Ps. 119:137; 129:4; 11:7

A. Righteous Father: John 17:25
B. Jesus Christ the Righteous: 1 John 2:1

3. Yahweh is the dwelling place of righteousness. Jer. 50:7
All the essence of righteousness is embodied in Him

4. Righteousness is the foundation of His throne. Ps. 97:2

5. He is righteous in all His ways. Ps. 145:17

6. No unrighteousness in God. Ps. 92:15

7. His righteousness endures forever. Ps. 111:3; 112:3; 119:142

8. God loves righteousness. Ps. 33:5

9. God's word:

A. He speaks righteousness. Is. 45:19
B. His whole law: Deut. 4:8 (torAh)
C. Statutes: (chōq) Deut 4:8, (that which is prescribed for righteous behavior. Usually in the area of moral and social affairs.

D. Judgments: (mishpAt), expressions of justice. Relates to moral living in the preservation of personal rights and freedom. Psalm 119:75; Deut. 4:8; Ps. 19:9

E. Testimonies: (āduth) instructions from God that directly reflect his attributes. Ps. 119:144

F. Commandments: (mitswAh) spiritual mandates; instructions for fellowship and service and includes morality principles. Ps. 119:172

10. God is a righteous judge. Ps. 7:11; 2 Tim. 4:8; Jer. 11:20;
Evaluator: Ps. 7:9b; Heb. 4:12-13

11. Application:

A. Salvation need: Ps. 143:2; Rom. 3:9-23
B. Salvation provision: Is. 45:25; 53:11; 2 Cor. 5:21
C. Salvation experience:

1. fellowship: 1 John 1:9 + 2:1 (John 17:25-26)
2. Growth: Eph. 4:20-24
3. service: Rom. 8:1-4; 1 Pet. 2:9

12. God is upright. (yAshar) related to righteousness in a morality context.

A. Righteousness is the character of absolute right by God's thinking.
B. Upright is the manifestation of that righteousness applied to the living conditions of creatures, ie, man.

C. Thus, it refers to a system of perfect standards for the proper function of human society in freedom and stability.

D. And therefore the term, divine morality.
E. The word, "upright," whether used of God or man always speaks to the issue of the divine standards of morality "for" the human race.

F. When used of God therefore, it simply states the fact that God is and acts perfectly consistent with the morality standards He has designed for man.


GOD: The Shepherd of our souls

1. The Father as the shepherd is the source of every spiritual blessing.
Eph. 1:3; Ps. 23:1, "I shall not be deficient."

2. The Father of lights: (phōs - light expressions). James 1:17, He is the source of every gift.

A. The first gift is salvation status "in Light." James 1:18
B. The second gift is the blessing of soul deliverance through spiritual growth.
James 1:19-25; Ps. 119:105 and Job 29:3 (soul purity, 1 Pet. 1:22)

3. The Father of mercies: oiktirmos - 2 Cor. 1:3
Support in the material things of life so that there might be a minimum of distractions in order to pursue truth. Mt. 6:25-34; Pr. 30:7-9; Philip. 4:19; Heb. 13:5-6

4. The God of all comfort: 2 Cor. 1:3, paraklāsis
Motivational support from the Word and other believers. 2 Cor. 4:16-18

5. The God of peace: Rom. 15:33

A. Peace through salvation status: Lk. 2:14; Eph. 2:17-19; Rom. 5:1
B. Source of the abundant life: Philip. 4:6-7
C. Victory in the angelic conflict: Rom. 16:20
D. Spiritual stability and purity through application of truth. 1 Thes. 5:23; Jn. 17:17

6. The God of confidence: Rom. 15:13
The result of abundant life reality through success in growth.
V. 14, results in service success.

7. The God of love: 1 John 4:8

A. Salvation provision: Jn. 3:16; Eph. 2:4; Rom. 5:8
B. Christian experience provision: Rom. 8:32; 2 Pet. 1:3-4; 2 Cor. 13:11


GOD: Our Shield

1. Gen. 15.1 - God says, "I am a shield to you - mAgen (Therefore do not fear)

2. Ps. 3.3 - Yahweh is a shield about me -- Thus, v. 6

A. My glory: kAbhodh-source of honor and character stability-Ps. 84.11

B. The one who lifts my head: source of confidence

3. 2 Sam. 22.2-3

V. 2

A. My rock: sela - elevated rock - away from all the pressure

B. My fortress: metsudAh - fort - (Masada)

C. My deliverer: pAlat - piel participle - provides escape

D. My rock: tsur - rock wall, quarry (speaks of a defensive posture)

E. In whom I take refuge: chAsAh - seek (and find) shelter

V. 3

A. My shield: mAgen -

B. horn of deliverance: source of yesha

C. stronghold: misgAb - place of escape as in a sonctuary

D. savior: yAsha - hiphil participle - active deliverer

E. saves from violence: chAmAs -

4. Ps. 18.30-shield to all who take refuge in Him:

chAsAh-seek and find shelter - Ps. 36.7; Prov. 30.5

5. Pr. 2.7-shield to those who walk in integrity: tom = character consistency.

6. Psalm 28.7 - My strength: oz = power source (and my shield)

7. Psalm 33.20 - our help - ezer

8. Ps. 84.11 -

A. a sun: source of light and guidance

B. and a shield: protection

C. gives grace: chen - Divine resources for living the Christian way of life.

D. and glory: kAbhodh-character reflection (compatibility with Divine standards)

9. Ps. 119.114 - My shield - my hiding place - sether - amplifies protection.

10. Psalm 144.2 -

A. My chesed: source of resources

B. fortress: metsudAh - fort

C. deliverer: pAlat - piel participle - provides escape

D. shield: in whom I take refuge - chAsAh

E. Who subdues people under me.

11. God shields us with his favor: Ps. 5.12

And with His truth - Ps. 91.4

12. Eph. 6.16 - our faith is a shield - trust in God's character and plan via application of truth to every area of life.

13. The shield of Israel's help: Deut. 33.29


GOD: Sovereignty of God

1. The sovereignty of God begins with His absolute existence. Gen. 1:1; Ps. 90:2

A. God has always existed. There never was a time when God did not exist.

B. This very fact alone establishes the authority of God as the final and absolute authority in the universe. And that is the definition.
Psalm 92:8, "But You, O Yahweh, are on high forever."

2. The sovereignty of God is the fact that God's authority is the final and absolute authority in the universe. Dan. 4:35

A. In the host of heaven: The angelic sphere
B. The inhabitants of earth: The human creation
C. Isaiah 14:24, 27; Psalm 103:19; 115:3; Heb. 6:13, "no one greater."
D. Title of sovereignty is The Most High. Gen. 14:19; Ps. 47:2; 83:18; Dan. 4:17
See topic God Most High.

3. God's sovereignty is enforced by His omnipotence. Ps. 66:7; Lk. 1:51; Is. 14:27

4. From God's sovereignty comes His plan for the ages which is expressed in decrees.
Psalm 2:7; Isaiah 46:8-10; Eph. 1:11; 3:11

5. From the divine decrees came the acts of creation.

A. Angels: Psalm 148:1-2
B. Universe: Ps. 148:3-6
C. Earth: Isaiah 45:18
D. Mankind: Gen. 1:26-27

6. Statements concerning the permanence of the divine decrees.

A. Psalm 33:11, the counsel of Yahweh stands forever,
The counsel of His heart from generation to generation.

B. Ec. 3:14, "I know that everything God does will remain forever; there is nothing to add to it and nothing to take from it, for God has so worked that men should reverence Him.'

C. Deut. 32:4, "His work is perfect, all His ways are justice."

D. Isaiah 25:1, "For you have worked wonders; plans from long ago with perfect faithfulness."

7. Through the decrees of God, a plan was designed to bring absolute recognition and acceptance of His perfect character by all of creation. Eph. 3:8-11

A. Angels failed. Ezek. 28:11-18 (Satan + 1/3 angels, Rev. 12:4)
B. Thus man was created:

1. Man failed in Gen. 3, but still God's plan is for man to be a demonstration of God's perfect righteousness, justice and love.

2. Therefore the plan of redemption was revealed beginning at Gen. 3:15 and reaching its culmination through physical resurrection.

3. God's priority for man is summed up at Ec. 12:13, but because of Gen. 8:21 (presence of the sin nature), there is a maximum potential for rejection and violation of that divine priority.

4. Gen. 8:21 threatens the stability of man's social environment which in turn threatens the "free" advance of evangelism.

5. Therefore the laws of divine morality were instituted to provide an OVERT control over the sin nature and cultivate the social stability and freedom needed so allow for an unrestricted gospel outreach.

6. There are 6 areas of divine morality which need to be recognized and preserved. volition, creation, body, marriage, family, nation

8. God's plan for man is viewed from 2 aspects.

A. In general: the laws of divine morality for the entire human race.
B. In specific: salvation and spiritual living. But only the believer in Jesus can fulfill the divine priority of bringing honor and recognition to God's character.

9. In sovereignty, God has given mankind volition in order to demonstrate the two sides of His justice. Based on the function of volition, man falls under the principle of blessing or cursing in both areas - morality and spirituality. Deut. 11:26-28; 30:15-20

10. Sovereignty related to the laws of divine morality:

A. First as the creator of the laws.
B. Then as the enforcer of the laws.

1. Indirectly:

a. blessing or cursing principles
b. human agents: Rom. 13:1-7

2. Directly: Daniel 4:17

11. Sovereignty related to salvation: 3 phases to God's plan of salvation.

A. Phase One: salvation itself

1. Provided by the Sovereignty of God. Eph. 1:11; Acts 2:23
2. But volition is responsible for entrance into it. Jn. 3:16-18, 36
3. Once volition accepts the plan of salvation by faith, sovereignty seals the decision and makes salvation a permanent status for the believer. Eph. 1:13-14; Rom. 8:38-39; Jn. 6:39-40; 10:27-29

B. Phase Two: Life on earth - the Christian way of life (CWL)

Psalm 139:16; 2 Pet. 2:3-4; 1 Thes. 4:1-8; Prov. 8:1-11; Eph. 5:18

C. Phase Three: Eternity - life with God in heaven John 14:1-3
Philippians 2:9-11; 3:20-21 1 Pet. 1:3-5

12. Application of sovereignty to the Christian way of life: 1 Chron. 29:11-13; 1 Sam. 2:6-8

A. God is in control of history. He is both directing and permitting the course of humanity under the rulership of Satan.

B. The believer is in a place of unique privilege, responsibility and protection.
C. Our salvation is secure.
D. Our daily life is provided for.
E. Therefore, confidence, contentment, happiness, motivation for service.
1 Cor. 15:58


Return to topic Authority


GOD: Sovereignty - Basic summary

1. Application from Daniel 9:24: 70 sevens are decreed -

A. Are "cut out" of time: chAthak - niphal perfect
B. Used to determine a time allotment.

2. Eternal existence: Psalm 90:2; Heb. 13:8; John 8:58

3. Creation: Gen. 1:1; Jn. 1:3
Creature humility: Ps. 8:3-5; 139:1-6, 13-16; Is. 29:15-16

4. Sovereignty: Isaiah 46:8-11

5. Rulership: Dan. 4:17, 34-35

A. Gen. 1:27-28: Man's past reign
B. Ps. 8:3-8: Man's future reign
C. Man lost his rulership at the fall: Gen. 3:17-19
D. Satan took over that rulership: Jn. 16:11; 12:31; 2 Cor. 4:4; Lk. 4:5-8
E. Christ's future rule: Philip. 2:9-11; Heb. 2:5-9; 1:8-13

6. So even though Satan rules, it is a permissive rule. God's sovereignty still controls.

A. Final word on nations: Acts 17:24-27
B. Final word on individuals: Ps. 139:16; Acts 17:28-31 (cf. Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7)

7. Man's present status:

A. Eph. 2:1-3, dead in trespasses and sin
B. In the kingdom of Satan and darkness: Col. 1:13; Acts 26:18
C. Ultimate destiny: Mat. 25:41, the lake of fire

8. God's provision:

A. 2 Pet. 3:9; 1 Tim. 2:4-6; willing for all to be saved
B. Acts 10:34-36; reconciliation through a change of status. Acts 26:18; Col. 1:13
C. This is deliverance or salvation: 2 stages and 2 aspects

1. Positional stage: Col. 1:13-14

a. Deliverance from Satan's kingdom
b. Deliverance from sin - redemption

2. Experiential stage: John 17:15-17; James 1:21; Rom. 8:1-8

9. The issue of spiritual growth: 1 Pet. 2:2; John 8:30-32; Luke 6:46-49


GOD: The Truth of God

1. The God of truth: Is. 65:16

2. God cannot lie: Num. 23:19; Titus 1:2

3. The truth of Yahweh is everlasting. Ps. 117:2

4. God's plan for the universe is based on truth. Ps. 111:7-8

5. God's word is truth: Ps. 119:160; John 17:17

A. Judgments: Ps. 19:9
B. Law: Ps. 119:142
C. Commandments: Ps. 119:151

6. Evidence of God's truth:

A. Fulfilled prophecy
B. Christian way of life blessing

7. Application of God's truth to the Christian way of life.

A. Confidence in salvation: Titus 1:2
B. Confidence of blessing and cursing.

1. Principle of blessing and cursing: Deut. 11:26-28; Micah 2:7
2. Confidence in God's promises: Rom. 4:20-21
3. Divine faithfulness


GOD'S CHARACTER: adjustment to

1. Man is born "out of adjustment" with God's character. Depravity as outlined at Rom. 5:6-10

A. Position: In Adam which gives us "imputed sin." Rom. 5:12-14; 3:23
This = out of adjustment to divine JUSTICE.

B. Nature: The possession of a sin nature through physical birth. Ps. 51:5
This = out of adjustment to divine RIGHTEOUSNESS

C. Life: The many acts of personal sin as at Eph. 2:1, "dead in trespasses and sins." (plural). This = out of adjustment to TRUTH and RIGHTEOUSNESS.

D. Relationship: In the kingdom of darkness and in Satan's family.
Outside of God's family indicates temporal life and being out of adjustment with God's ETERNAL LIFE.

E. Independence from God: enemies of God indicates being out of adjustment to His SOVEREIGNTY.

2. The plan of salvation:

A. Justice must be satisfied. Rom. 6:23a
B. Righteousness must be satisfied: Mat. 5:20
C. Man is helpless to satisfy them: Rom. 5:6, "helpless."
D. God's love motivated Him to seek man: John 3:16; Rom 5:8; Eph. 2:4
E. Sovereignty made a plan: Eph. 3:11a
F. Love motivated Christ to fulfill that plan. Gal. 2:20
G. Justice was satisfied when sins were judged on the cross.
H. Grace is what makes the benefit of the cross available to man.
Eph. 2:8-9; Titus 2:11
I. The gospel is the communication to man. (Truth). 1 Cor. 15:1-4
J. Man must use his own volition to accept the gospel. John 3:15-16
K. And accepting the gospel makes man adjusted to God's sovereignty (1 Pet. 3:9).
L. Union with Christ adjusts us to God's righteousness through justification.
2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 5:1, "having been justified."
M. We are given everlasting life to adjust us to His Eternal Life. Rom. 6:23b
N. And we enter into the sphere of His Fatherly LOVE. John 1:12

3. The protection of the believer's salvation is based on adjustment to God's character.

A. Omnipotence: 1 Pet. 3:5
B. Omnipresence: Heb. 13:5b
C. Omniscience: 2 Tim. 2:19
D. Faithfulness (constancy): 2 Tim. 2:13

4. The transition from position to experience is found in - -

A. Sovereignty designs a "quality of life" for us here on earth.
B. Love motivates: Rom. 8:32
C. Omnipotence is the provider: 2 Pet. 1:3
D. Love, treats us as a child especially in the area of discipline. Heb. 12:4-13.
E. Justice is the enforcer when God's standards are violated.


GOD'S CHARACTER: Abraham's orientation

1. Abram's salvation: Falls under activity of Gen. 4:26

A. Gospel information probably came from Shem who lived 150 years after Abe's birth.

B. God-consciousness information as per Rom. 1:20 and Ps. 19:1-3.
Ie, His eternal power and existence

C. Salvation information as per righteousness, justice and grace was given to Abe while he was still in Ur of the Chaldees and before his "call to service."

2. Abram's call: Gen. 12:1-3 with Acts 7:2-3

A. The God of glory: emphasis on power and sovereignty.
B. The God of promise: life and progeny
C. Failure to claim the promise: Gen. 12:10-13

3. Gen. 14:18-22: God Most High (See Topic, God Most High)

A. Sovereignty and ownership: God is the source.
B. Relates to the land provision of the unconditional covenant.

4. Gen. 15:1: Yahweh, the shield and reward.

A. Protection: Military confrontations and material pressures.
B. Provision: The promised seed not yet provided.

5. Gen. 17:1: God the source - El Shaddai (The Almighty provider)
See Topic: God Almighty

A. Personal blessing
B. Progeny
C. Relates to the blessing provision of the covenant

6. Gen. 17:15-19 with 18:14: a God of power -
Motivation to trust in Him in the face of humanly hopeless situations.

7. Gen. 18:16-23 with 19:24-29: a God of justice -
Recognition that God enforces His righteousness.

8. Gen. 21:33 - The God of eternity

9. Gen. 22:1-14: a God of testing.

A. But testing means spiritual provision and growth
B. CF. 1 Cor. 10:13 - God's faithfulness in testing.


God the Father: Addressed as Lord

1. The first observation is the obvious use in Old Testament quotes:

Acts 2:20, 21, 25, 34; 3:22; 4:26; 7:33; 15:17-18; 1 Peter 3:12

Romans 4:8; 9:28-29; 10:13, 16; 11:3, 34; 12:19; 14:11; 15:11

1 Cor. 1:31; 2:16; 3:20; 14:21; 2 Cor. 6:17, 18; 10:17

Hebrews 1:10; 7:21; 8:8, 9, 10-11; 10:16, 30; 12:5-6; 13:6

2. Used in prayer: Acts 1:24; 4:24-30; 7:60; 8:22-24

3. The Spirit of the Lord: Acts 5:9; 8:39

4. An angel of the Lord: Acts 5:19; 8:26; 12:7, 11, 17; 12:23

5. The Lord opened her heart: Acts 16:14

6. Acts 10:9-16, 28, 33: The Lord in Peter's vision is probably God the Father.

7. Acts 17:24-31, The God who made the world, the Lord of heaven and earth, provided a savior.

8. 2 Cor. 6:18, The Lord Almighty

9. James 3:9, with the tongue we bless our Lord and (even) Father.

10. James 1:5-7, God/Lord

11. James 4:6-17 God/Lord

12. James 5:4, the Lord of hosts

13. James 5:11, the Lord's dealings with Job

14. 2 Peter 2:4-11, God/Lord

15. Luke 2:26, the Lord's Christ

(Return to PRAYER topic)


GOD and FATHER of Jesus

1. When Jesus says, "My God," it emphasizes the essence of the Godhead in providing the plan of redemption for the human race and indicates Christ's total dependence on God the Father as the source and sustainer of His humanity.

A. Reference to the God of Jesus occurs 19 times in the NT (3 times in the Old Testament).
B. Four times by Jesus: "My God"

1. On the cross: Mat. 27:46 (Mark 15:34)
2. At the resurrection: John 20:17
3. 7 times by Paul: to emphasize praise and prayer.

a. The issue is that Christ, in His humanity sets the example to all believers for recognizing the sovereign status of God the Father.

b. Rom. 15:6; 1 Cor. 3:23; 11:3; 2 Cor. 1:3; 11:31; Eph 1:3, 17

4. 2 times by Hebrews as quotes from the Old Testament.

a. Heb. 1:9 - quoted from Psalm 45:7
b. Heb. 10:7 - quoted from Psalm 40:7-8

5. 1 Time by Peter at 1 Pet. 1:3
6. 1 Time by John at Rev. 1:6

2. The title in no way takes away from the deity of Christ. John 1:1
3. The "WORD" refers to the 2nd member of the Godhead.

A. The Word is the revealer of God and God's wisdom through visible manifestations.
B. In that capacity, he is equal with God.

4. When the Word became flesh (John 1:14 - the incarnation) the wisdom and knowledge of God became embodied in a human body. Col. 2:3; Heb. 10:5

5. During the incarnation, Jesus was functionally subordinate and dependent on God the Father as the source for fulfilling His Messianic purpose. Philip. 2:6-8; 1 Pet. 2:23

6. The term "My Father," emphasizes the authority relationship between the incarnate Word and the first person of the Godhead (John 8:25-29) while at the same time establishing the deity of the Son.

A. For Jesus, the use of the title "Father" establishes His equality with the Father.
John 8:48-59; 10:30-33

B. For believers, the use of the title "Father" establishes our participation in the family of God through the plan of redemption. John 1:12; 1 Pet. 1:17

7. The personal reference to "My God and My Father" by Jesus, reflects His dependence on the Father and gives us the example we need for true humility.

A. 25 times in the synoptic gospels (Mat, Mark, Luke).
B. 24 times in the gospel of John
C. 5 times by Paul
D. 1 time by Peter
E. 4 times in The Revelation.

8. When the writers of scripture refer to the God and Father of Jesus, it recognizes the reality of the incarnation relationship between the Father and the Son, and accepts the example of humility and trust that Jesus gave us.


This is an outline of information. A more detailed development of this outline can be found at THIS LINK.

1. Definition based on the Greek:

A. The verb: 54 times, means to announce good news.

1. euangelidzō = only 2 times by John in Revelation (10:7; 14:6)
2. eunagelidzomai = 52 times

B. The noun: euangelion = 77 times, means good announcement (news)
C. The agent: euangelistās = 3 times, an announcer of good news (evangelist)

2. Definition based on the message which is proclaimed.

A. Luke 2:10, source of great joy
B. The kingdom of God: Luke 4:43; 8:1; 16:16; cf. Acts 28:31
C. Jesus Christ: Acts 5:42 (Jesus: Acts 8:35; The Lord Jesus: Acts 11:20)
D. The word: Acts 8:4 (The word of the Lord: Acts 15:35)
E. Things about the kingdom of God: Acts 8:12; cf. Acts 28:31
F. Peace by Jesus Christ: Acts 10:36 (Peace: Eph. 2:17)
G. To turn from idols to God: Acts 14:15
H. Good things: (agathos) Romans 10:15
I. The Faith: Gal. 1:23
J. The unfathomable riches of Christ: Eph. 3:8
K. Thus, the good news about God and His plan for the human race.

3. The scope of the gospel:

A. The plan of salvation: Eph. 1:13, the gospel of your salvation; Rom. 1:16
(saved from the penalty of sin)

B. Standards for living the Christian way of life: 1 Tim. 1:3-11; Acts 15:35; Rom. 16:25; Gal. 1:6-9; 3:1-3

4. The required response to the gospel:

A. Mark 1:15 - believe (pisteuō) the gospel: Acts 15:7; Rom. 1:16
B. 2 Thes. 1:8 - obey the gospel (hupakouō)

1. The command of Acts 16:31
2. Rom. 1:5, The obedience of (which is) faith.

5. What must be believed: The details of the salvation message

A. The outline at 1 Cor. 15:3-8

1. Christ: the Messiah who is God in the flesh (Emmanuel, Is. 7:14)
2. Died for our sins: Spiritual sacrifice - John 1:29; Is. 53:10
3. Died physically: "buried" - principle of John 12:24
4. Rose from the dead: resurrection as proof - Acts 17:31

B. Believe in Christ: Acts 16:31
C. Belief in the Father: Rom. 4:24; John 5:24
D. Faith in His blood: That is the sacrifice He made - Rom. 3:25
E. Faith in the resurrection: Rom. 10:9; Col. 2:12

6. Believing in vain: 1 Cor. 15:2

A. Means to believe the wrong object. Put your trust in something other than the details of the gospel as God has outlined it.

B. If someone believes something else it is another gospel (Gal. 1:6-9) and although their "faith" may be genuine, since it is in the wrong object, it is in vain.

7. Believer's attitude toward the gospel:

A. Rom. 1:16 - not ashamed
B. 2 Tim. 2:15 - diligence in study in order to teach it accurately.
C. 1 Pet. 3:15-16 - always ready with a "word" to those who ask.
D. Paul's example: 1 Cor. 9:19-23

8. The gospel in the Old Testament.

A. Gen. 3:15 - the seed of the woman who defeats Satan.
B. Gen. 4:26 - then men began calling on the name of the LORD.
C. Noah: A proclaimer of righteousness - 2 Pet. 2:5
D. Abraham: Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:1-5; Gal. 3:8 and Gen. 12:2-3
E. Job: Job 19:25-26
F. Moses: Heb. 11:24-26
G. The sacrificial system: Heb. 9 and 10 (9:1-12)
H. The prophets: 1 Pet. 1:10-12
I. Isaiah: 28:16; 55:1-3; 53:5-12
J. Ninevah: Jonah 3:5; Luke 11:32
K. Romans 10:13-21

9. The false gospel:

A. A distorted gospel: Gal. 1:6-9; 2:11-14; 2 Cor. 11:3-4
B. A false messenger: 2 Cor. 11:13-15; Mat. 7:22-23; Acts 16:16-18
C. Incomplete message: Apollos - Acts 18:24-25
D. A carnal messenger: Philip. 1:15-17
E. A faulty response:

1. 1 Cor. 15:2 - believing in vain
2. a wrong focus: John 6:14-15

F. The blinded mind: 2 Cor. 4:3-4 (with Mat. 13:19)
G. Gal. 5:1-9 - works (with Rom. 4:1-4)

10. The GOSPEL titles:

A. Gospel of the kingdom: Mt. 4:23; 9:35; 24:14; Mk. 1:14; cf. Acts 28:31
    Gospel of the kingdom of God, Luke 16:16
B. Gospel of God: Rom. 1:1; 15:16; 2 Cor. 11:7; 1 Thes. 2:2, 8, 9; 1 Pet.4:17
C. Gospel of the Blessed God: 1 Tim. 1:11
D. Gospel of Jesus Christ: Mat. 1:1
E. Gospel of Christ: Rom .1:16; 15:19; 1 Cor. 9:12, 18; 2 Cor. 2:12; 9:13; 10:14;
Gal. 1:7; Philip. 1:27; 1 Thes. 3:2

F. Gospel of the glory of Christ: 2 Cor. 4:4
G. Gospel of our Lord Jesus: 2 Thes. 1:8
H. Gospel of His Son: Rom. 1:9
I. Gospel of the grace of God: Acts 20:24
J. Gospel of peace: Eph. 6:15
K. Gospel of your salvation: Eph. 1:13
L. My gospel and our gospel: Rom. 2:16; 16:25; 1 Thes. 1:5; 2 Thes. 2:14; 2 Tim.2:8.
M. The everlasting gospel: Rev. 14:6



1. Definition: Gossip is the relating of some bit of information, whether it be criticism, ridicule, accusations or even the truth, with the mental attitude of "love neglect."

A. Love neglect is:

1. Either an attitude of pure self-promotion at the expense of the other person.

2. Or simply unwise tale-bearing without considering the benefit, feelings and reputation of the other.

B. People need to keep in contact with others and be made aware of needs and problems. But the attitude and motivation determines whether such talk is gossip or not.

2. Some aspect of gossip is included in all the major sin lists of the Bible.

A. Mat. 15:18-20

1. False witness: pseudomarturia

2. slanders: blasphāmia (plural)

B. Mark 7:21-23, slander - blasphāmia - in the singular.

C. Romans 1:29-31

1. gossips: psithuristās - whisperer.

2. slanderers: katalalos - evil speaker

D. 1 Cor. 6:9-10, revilers - loidoros, refers to verbal abuse.

E. Eph. 5:4

1. silly talk: mōrologia

2. insensitive jesting: eutrapelia - ridicule and sarcasm

F. Proverbs 6:16-19

1. lying tongue:

2. false witness who utters lies

3. spreads strife among brothers.

3. A gossip is called perverse in Pr. 16:28a

A. Literal: a man of perversion: tAhpukAh - from kAphak which means to turn or overturn.

B. The noun is that which is turned around: deviation, rebellion, perversion

C. This describes the character of the one who gossips. He is a rebel against the principles of freedom and privacy.

4. The damage he does is found in Pr. 16:28b and 17:9

A. He separates friendships: Lit: divides = pArad

B. the one who is turned around in his soul has a distorted character and seeks to turn that which is normal in others.

C. Slander accomplishes socially what overt violence does physically.

Proverbs 25:18

D. Slander is poison: Ps. 140:1-3; James 3:8

E. Much trouble is caused by gossip which would not exist otherwise.

Proverbs 26:20

F. Gossip is an invasion of privacy. Prov. 20:19. If you know something or learn something about someone else, it is your job to keep it to yourself.

G. Many times gossip is disguised in "prayer" during public prayer meetings. But the information known about the person should not be so disclosed except in the context of a GENUINE application of Rom. 15:1-3 and Gal. 6:1-2.

5. The one who gossips is a fool. Pr. 10:18

fool = kesiyl = one who is ignorant of spiritual truth and rebellious against God.

6. The gossip makes himself an evil, unattractive reputation. Pr. 25:9-10

7. the gossip violates spiritual and moral value and operates contrary to truth and love.

James 4:11

8. Spiritual fellowship with God is directly related to the attitude and practice of gossip.

Ps. 15:1-3

9. Gossip is attractive to the person who is living based on his emotions.

Pr. 18:8, the attraction of gossip is an emotional high.

A. It is the occupational hazard of the emotionally unstable woman. 1 Tim. 5:13

B. Women are especially vulnerable to the practice of gossip.

1 Tim. 3:11; Titus 2:3

10. Helpful advice concerning gossip:

A. Jer. 9:4, do not trust the one who gossips.

B. Prov. 20:19b, Apply doctrine of separation toward gossips

11. There is a time when the of evil men must be exposed to others as a warning of their potential influence. This is not gossip. 2 Tim. 4:10; 14-15; 1 Timothy 1:19-20;

Philippians 4:2-3; Gal. 2:11-14; 3 John v. 9-11; 1 Tim 5:19=-20



1. PRIORITY #1: Grace orientation toward God. Prov. 1:7; 1 Peter 1:17

A. Creature humility: Acts 17:28; Jer. 32:27

1. Creator: 1 Chron. 16:26
2. Sovereignty and power: 1 Peter 5:6
3. Knowledge: Isaiah 29:15-16; Romans 9:14-23
4. Life: Job 12:10


B. Salvation humility: Mat. 18:1-4; Mark 2:15-17 (sin humility)

1. Total depravity: Rom. 3:19-18, 23 (right. and justice)
Eph. 2:1-3; Rom. 5:6-10 (H.U.S.E.); includes Is. 57:21

2. God's provision: LOVE
John 14:6; Acts 4:12; Romans 5:6-8; 6:23; 1 Tim. 2:5-6

3. Man's response: relates to righteousness. Eph. 2:8-9;
Acts 16:30-31; Isaiah 64:6; John 1:12-13; Rom. 3:27-31.

C. Fellowship humility: Psalm 51:17 - divine policy (right and J.)

1. Personal sins: Psalm 51:5; 1 John 1:10
2. The sin nature: Psalm 51:5; 1 John 1:8
3. The solution: Ps. 51:6 via v. 17 & Prov. 28:13 & 1 Jn. 1:9.

D. Growth humility: Prov. 1:7; James 1:21; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:18;
1 Corinthians 2:9-10. The word and the communicator

E. Worship humility: godliness (eusebeia) = good worship.

1. Relationship humility: Eph.2:8-9; 1 Cor. 1:30 (God's work).
2. Knowledge humility: 1 Cor. 8:1; Eph. 3:16; 1 Jn. 2:20, 27
3. Gift Humility: Rom. 12:4-5; 1 Cor. 12:14-27; 1 Pet. 4:10
4. Production humility: Rom.14:17-18; Phil.2:12-13; 2Cor. 3:5-6
5. Association humility: 1 Cor. 3:3-9; Gal. 2:1-6
6. Ritual humility: Mat. 6:1

a. baptism: 1 Cor. 1:13-17
b. sabbath: Rom. 14:5-6; Col. 2:16-17
c. prayer: Mat. 6:5-7
d. fasting: Mat. 6:16-17
e. giving: Mat. 6:2-4
f. commandments and teaching of men: Col. 2:20-23

2. PRIORITY #2: Grace orientation to self

A. Living humility: James 4:15; Romans 14
B. Detail of life humility: 1 Tim. 6:17b; 6:6-8


3. PRIORITY #3: Grace orientation to others:

A. It recognizes that we are here to promote divine truth to others

1. Jesus is the example: John 18:37
2. Our commission: 1 Peter 2:9

B. Ultimately, all service to God has a euangelion goal behind it.

1. Unbeliever: 1 Cor. 10:31-33
2. Believer: Ephesians 4:1-3 via the unity doctrines of v. 4-6


C. Summed up by love:

1. The principle: 1 John 4:11
2. The obligation: 1 John 4:21
3. The mechanics: 1 John 5:1-3
4. The power source:

a. Filling of the Spirit: Galatians 5:22
b. The word: 1 Timothy 1:5

5. The specifics: 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 - 15 virtues

4. So in order to make progress in humility, we must grow in grace and knowledge. 2 Peter 3:18

A. Grace: 1 Peter 5:12 (stand in it); Heb. 13:9 (stabilized);2 Timothy 2:1 (strengthened)

B. Knowledge: Application of divine viewpoint standards

1. To others: faithfulness
2. To morality: goodness (agothosune)


GRACE: The Periphery of grace

1. God surrounds the believer with grace resources to deal with any & every situation in life. 2 Peter 1.3-4

A. V. 3- "His Divine power has given us all things pertaining to life and worship through the full knowledge of Him who called us by his own glory and virtue."

1. All things: all the grace resources needed for the Christian way of life.

2. Life: morality living in the sphere of your social environment.

3. worship: eusebeia = good worship, proper fellowship with and service to God.

4. Through the full knowledge: epignosis - that which is revealed in the written word and then accepted into the soul as functional knowledge.

B. V. 4- "Through which things He has given us his valuable and magnificent promises in order that by them you might become sharers of the Divine nature by having escaped the corruption that is in the world in the sphere of lust."

1. Through which things: The all things mentioned above.

2. Promises: doctrines and principles which state God's laws for spiritual reality.

3. Through them: by knowledge and application of those promises to your life.

4. You might become: Becoming a participant in spiritual reality after salvation is accomplished through growth. (learning and using God's word)

5. sharers: koinonos - One who fellowships with another. In this case it is fellowship with God's character by having that character produced in us through the Word of God and the Holy Spirit. 2 Cor. 3.18; Gal. 5.22-23

6. By having escaped: The aorist participle indicates that this escape takes place before God's character can be reflected in us.

7. That escape refers to victory over the old sin nature (1 Peter 2.11) by offsetting its lusts with God's word and the control of the Spirit. Ps. 119.11; Gal. 5.16

C. 2 Peter 1.5-11 - Because of this provision from God, Peter exhorts us to be diligent in learning and using God's word so that the promised character reflection will be present and be increasing.

D. Diligence can best be described as an attitude which submits to God's policies for fellowship with Him and growth.

1. Not regarding sin in the life. Ps. 66.18

2. When sin occurs, putting it out of the life by confession. 1 Jn. 1.9; Pr. 28.13

3. Jam 1.21:"Therefore having put aside all pollution and the overflow of wickedness, in humility receive the implanted word which is able to deliver your souls."

4. 1 Peter 2.1-2: "Therefore, having put aside all wickedness and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy and all slander, like newborn babes strongly desire the pure milk of the word so that by it you may grow in respect to salvation."

E. This diligence is described in the Old Testament with the words godly (chAsiydh) and righteous. Both these words reflect dedication and consistency.

F. And it is only in the realm of this dedication and consistency that the believer can truly participate in all the grace resources which surround him.

G. And this is the desire expressed by Peter in v.2 when he says "grace & peace be multiplied to you in the full knowledge of our God and savior Jesus Christ."


2. Psalm 32.10: "He who trusts in Yahweh, grace provision shall surround him."

A. Trust: bAtach-total dependence as in throwing your whole weight upon something for security. This is an attitude that recognizes God as the source for everything we need for life and worship.

B. Grace provision: chesed-that which God makes available to the believer for his Christian way of life.

C. Surround: the idea obviously, is that God provides an abundance of grace resources for any and every situation in life.

D. But notice the subtle condition for having a true functional participation in these grace resources. TRUST.

3. Psalm 5.12: "For you, you Yahweh bless the righteous one. You surround him with favor as with a shield."

A. Favor: rAtsōn - goodwill, favor, acceptance. It refers to the attitude and action of providing for the righteous believer (the one using truth) all that he needs for the Christian way of life.

B. Bless: bArak - means to provide success and prosperity. In this case it indicates that God provides beneficent favor to the functional believer.

C. Surround: Again this speaks of unlimited resources for dealing with life and worship.


4. Psalm 32.6-7: "Let everyone who is grace oriented (chAsiyd) pray---"

"Surely in a flood of great waters (pressure) they shall not reach him"

Special protection in crisis, "You surround me with songs of deliverance."

5. Ps. 34.7:"The Angel of Yahweh encamps around those who reverence him and rescues them."

6. Psalm 125.1-3: "Yahweh is around his people." But only those who trust in him benefit from that periphery of protection - v. 1.

7. Psalm 139.5: "You have enclosed me behind and before, and laid your hand upon me." Special care and protection

8. Principle of Psalm 84.11: "Yahweh gives grace and glory. He does not withhold benefit from those who walk with integrity." (fellowship and character consistency)

9. Principle of Romans 8.28: "And we know that God causes all things to work together for benefit to those who love God ---" (fellowship and using God's word)

10. Principle of Romans 8.32: "He who did not spare his own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how will he not also with Him graciously give us all things?"

He will provide everything we need for life and worship - 2 Pet. 1.3


GRACE PROVISION: Resources for living the Christian life

1. The principle of grace provision is represented by the Hebrew word, chesed.

A. This word is usually translated as "loving kindness."
B. But it specifically refers to the many and varied resources God makes available to His people so that they might live a fulfilled Christian experience here on earth.
C. It is better translated as "grace provision" or "grace resources" in the plural.
D. Psalm 85:8-13; 23:6; 103:1-5; 138:1-3

2. The reliability of God's grace provision:

A. Statement of God's character: Ex. 34:6; Ps. 86:15; Joel 2:13
B. The "forever" availability of God's grace resources: 1 Chron. 16:34;
Psalm 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1-4, 29; 136:1-26

C. They never cease: Lam. 3:22-23
D. Un-measurable and unlimited: Psalm 57:10; 36:5; 108:4
E. Strong toward us: Psalm 117:2
F. The earth is full of your chesed: Ps. 119:64

3. General benefit of chesed:

A. It is good (tobh): Psalm 69:16
B. Better than life: Psalm 63:3
C. Valuable: Psalm 36:7

4. Principles of application: All based on KNOWING the word of God. Ps. 119:41, 64

A. Love and obedience: Ex. 20:6; Neh 1:5; Deut. 5:10; 7:9-12
B. Walk before God with all your heart: 1 Kings 8:23
C. Keep His covenant and His testimonies: Ps. 25:10; 103:18
D. Trusts in the Lord: Ps. 32:10
E. Those who fear (reverence) Him: Ps. 33:18, 22;
F. Those who wait upon (trust) Him: Ps. 103:11, 17; 147:11
G. To all who call upon Him: Ps. 86:5
H. Perform good: Pr. 14:22
I. Thus, the basis for the apostolic greeting of "grace and peace."

5. Grace provision in the Greek: 2 words, charis and eleos

A. Basically, charis, is the principle of grace. Used for giving thanks.
B. The word, eleos, is the expression of God's grace which provides all we need for living the Christian way of life. It is used for chesed in the LXX (septuagint) 135 times.

C. But both can be used for the actual provisions from God.
Compare the overlap:

1. Jude v. 2: mercy and peace
2. 2 Pet. 1:2: grace and peace
3. Paul uses, "grace and peace" as well as "grace, mercy and peace."
1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2; Titus 1:4

4. John at 2 John v. 3: grace, mercy and peace

6. The principle of provision for the Christian life.

A. Provided by the Messiah: John 1:14-17
B. Romans 8:32, "freely give us all things." (charidzomai) This is based on the afortiori principle of salvation. The afortiori principle is - Since God did the "most" for us in providing salvation, He will nothing "less" in providing what we need for life here on earth after salvation.

C. 2 Pet. 1:3-5, "all that we need for life and godliness (worship)"

7. Principles of application in the New Testament: But still based on the issue of knowing and using God's word.

A. 2 Pet. 1:2, "in the full knowledge": Peter recognizes that he cannot "wish" grace and peace upon someone, but that it is based on knowing bible truth.

B. James 4:6-10: humility toward God with emphasis on fellowship with Him.
C. 1 Pet. 5:5-10 : humility through the practice of faith rest.
D. Eph. 6:24: To those who love
E. Heb. 4:16: Come to the throne of grace (the source of the provision) through faith rest and prayer.
F. Heb. 12:12-17: recognize the possibility of being deficient of grace.


GRACE Speaking

1. Grace speaking is a vocabulary and verbal expression that reflects truth, humility and love.

A. Col. 4:6: Let your speech = logos (word)

1. Always: pantote
2. With grace: en charis
3. Seasoned with salt: adds flavor, attractiveness
4. that you may know: knowledge and application of God's character and word in the area of communicating with people.

B. Eph. 4:29: Let no unwholesome word: sapros = decayed, rotten and therefore, unusable.

1. For edification: oikodomā = building up of the soul.
2. According to the need: specific information for specific needs. Pr. 12:25
3. To give: didomi = aorist active subjunctive. The aorist refers to the specific point of time that you communicate with someone.

4. Grace: charis - principle of understanding and provision to meet the needs of the person based on divine viewpoint standards.

C. Eph. 5:4: Expressing grace (thanks) = eucharisteō, which means to think and express the attitude of grace humility.

2. This is called, "speaking good" at 1 Pet. 3:9, in contrast to insults, evil and deception.

1. Cf. 1 Thes. 5:15 where the word for good is, agathos.
2. Romans 12:14, bless = eulogeō which means to speak well of someone or to speak that which is good for someone.

3. Proverbs 10:6, blessings are on the head of the righteous which indicates that they "provide" blessings for others. This is clear by contrasting it with the next line where we see the mouth of the wicked concealing violence (intent to do harm).

3. Thus, it is "healthy" speech which provides benefit to others and to self. Titus 2:8a,
"sound in speech." "sound," = hugias = healthy, proper, beneficial, constructive.

A. Benefit to others: Prov. 10:20

1. Healing of the soul: Pr. 12:18, 25; 15:4; 16:24
2. Proclamation of the truth: Pr. 15:2, 7; 10:21, 31-32
3. Meeting needs: Eph. 4:29; Pr. 27:9

B. Benefit to self:

1. Happiness: Pr. 15:23
2. Social stability: Ps. 34:11-14; Pr. 12:19; 14:3
3. Defense: Pr. 15:1, 18; 25:15
4. Testimony and reputation: Pr. 16:13, 21; 22:11; 1 Tim. 4:12

4. The standard for grace speech is the Bible. The viewpoint of God. Ps. 19:14; James 2:12

A. Prov. 10:11, 31-32
B. Prov. 16:23
C. Col. 3:17, the authority and viewpoint of Christ.
D. Wisdom: James 3:17

5. Therefore, grace speaking is based on the capacity for and function of faith-rest (trusting God).
1 Peter 2:23;

6. Grace speaking is a sign of spiritual maturity. James 3:2; 1:26; 3:13

7. Grace speaking applies to the principle of silence upon occasion.

A. Discretion: Prov. 15:28
B. Timing: Pr. 15:23
C. Silence: Pr. 10:19; 11:12
D. Guarding: Pr. 13:3; 17:27; 21:23; 29:20
E. Principle of the trap: Pr. 12:13; 18:7
F. Evaluation: Pr. 23:9 with Mat. 7:6

8. What is a greeting" Mat. 5:47 with 2 John 10-11

A. Mat. 5:47 - Greeting is civility and courtesy and is indicative of no "soul" enmity on your part.

B. 2 John v. 10-11, However, here the issue is not "greeting" but an expression of happiness. There is no basis for sharing "happiness" with a false teacher. To thus, "socialize" with a false teacher partakes of his evil deeds.

The word "greeting" at v. 10 and 11 is the verb, chairō which means rejoice.

The issue here then is - be civil, but do not "enter" into his viewpoint and deeds by
telling him "to rejoice" for he has no basis for rejoicing and indeed is unable to truly rejoice in God because the false teaching has blinded his eyes (1 Jn. 2:10-11).

9. Grace speaking may sometimes be aggressive as it rebukes and corrects error and darkness viewpoint. 2 Tim. 2:24-25; 1 Tim. 4:1-6; Titus 1:9-13



1. Everyday of your life is an opportunity to put grace thinking into practice.

Eph. 5.15-16

2. Grace thinking is an attitude that recognizes the source and nature of God's plan.

A. 1 Cor. 4.7 - What do you have that you did not receive?

B. Jas. 1.17 - Every good thing comes from God

C. 1 Cor. 1.30 - By his doing - we have spiritual life reality.

3. 2 primary grace gifts to the human race:

A. Salvation: Jas. 1.18 - regeneration

B. Revealed Truth: Jas. 1.19 -

4. Man's response:

A. Salvation: Eph. 2.8-9

B. Truth: Jas. 1.19-22 (Jn. 8.31-32)

5. Preparation for life:

A. 1 Pet. 5.12

B. 2 Pet. 3.18

C. Heb. 13.9

D. Eph. 5.17

6. Application:

A. Toward self: Eph. 5.18

B. Toward God: V. 19-20

1. Ritual: v. 19 - son, festivals, holidays

2. Reality: v. 20 - eucharisteo - expression of grace

C. Toward others: V. 21

7. Summary: James 4.6-17


GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Every verb has 4 factors that assist in determining the function and meaning intended at its place in the sentence.

1. TENSE: Describes the action of the verb. Primarily the "kind" of action, but sometimes the time as well. There are 6 tenses.

A. Present tense: indicates continuous action in present time. Sometimes used to indicate a process or status.

1. 2 Cor. 3:18, "We are being transformed." This is a process.

2. Heb. 10:14, For by one offering, He has perfected for all time "those who are {being} sonctified." This is a status.

3. There are many other uses which are not as common.

B. Imperfect tense: indicates continuous action in past time.

Luke 3:10, and the multitudes "were [kept on] asking him questions."

C. Future tense: Action viewed as taking place in a future time.

1. John 3:36, "shall not see life," no perpetuation of spiritual life into eternity.

2. Sometimes continuous action is in view and sometimes "point of time" action is in view.

D. Aorist (erist) tense: Indicates punctiliar, ie, "point of time" action.

1. It just happened in a point of time

2. It could be a literal moment in time or a period of time viewed as one point.

3. It can be past or present depending on context, but is usually past.

4. Sometimes it is used to state a principle that is "constant" and absolute.

E. Perfect tense: Indicates completed action in the past with results extending into the present and sometimes beyond.

Eph. 2:8, For by grace "you have been saved (in the past with the result that right now you are saved)."

F. Pluperfect tense: Indicates completed action with results viewed as "finished" in past time. John 19:22, "what I have written, I have written."

2. VOICE: Describes "how" the subject relates to the action of the verb.

A. Active voice: The subject produces the action of the verb.

1. John 8:32, "you shall know the truth" -you are the subject

2. Jn. 8:32, "and the truth shall make you free." truth is the subject.

3. Acts 16:31, "believe . . ." You are the subject.

B. Passive voice: The subject receives the action of the verb.

1. Acts 16:31, "and you shall be saved." You receive it.

2. Eph. 2:8, "You have been saved." You received it.

3. 2 Cor. 3:18, "you are being transformed." You receive it.

C. Middle voice: The subject acts upon itself or participates in the action.

1. Direct middle: Mat. 27:5, "he hanged himself"

2. Indirect middle: Heb. 9:12, "He Himself secured eternal redemption."

3. Permissive middle: 1 Cor. 6:7, "let yourselves be wronged."

4. Reciprocal middle: (plural subject) John 9:22, "the Jews had agreed with one another."

3. MOOD: This relates the action of the verb to the principle of reality.

The 4 moods indicate either a fact, command, wish or potential.

A. Indicative mood: the mood of reality. Simple assertion or statement.

B. Imperative mood: the mood of command.

C. Subjunctive mood: the mood of potential.

1 John 1:9, "If we confess . . ." Maybe we will, maybe we won't.

D. Optative mood: the mood of desire or wish.

2 Thes. 3:5, "May the Lord guide your hearts . . ." A desire or wish on the part of the writer.

4. ETYMOLOGY: This refers to the historical and cultural background of the word.

A. How it was used by the people of the day.

B. Background to its root and usage.

C. Example: baptism. When all is said and done, this word means to identify something with something else so as to produce an association or union (equality) or change of identity. (thus, water is not always involved.)

Return to Letter category of your choice:


GROWTH: Spiritual growth

1. The principle of growth: 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:12; James 1:21-22

Spiritual growth is a bona fide principle in the Christian experience.
In other words, it is a NECESSARY ingredient for success in fulfilling the plan of God for your life.

See the following topic: The urgency of spiritual growth.

2. Growth actually involves the building up of a knowledge "structure" in the soul. This is indicated by the use of the word, "edification." The verb is oikodomeō and means to build a house.

A. Col. 2:6-7

1. Firmly rooted (aorist tense) refers to "salvation" status which was secured at the moment of time that one trusted in Christ as savior.

2. And now BEING (present tense) built up in Him: this refers to the process of growth which is a process of "building" a knowledge structure in the soul.

3. and BEING (present tense) established: This indicates that success in the growth process "stabilizes" the soul of the believer in the realm of THE ( not "your") faith (the whole realm of Christian knowledge).

B. Ephesians 4:15-16

1. But "following" (not speaking) the truth:

a. This is an adverbial participle to describe what activity is necessary in order to fulfill the action of the main verb.

b. The main verb is grow: In order to grow, we must follow the truth.

2. In love: This refers to the attitude of humility and dedication to God that is necessary for growth to be successful. We need to have a positive mental attitude toward accepting the word of God into our soul. We need to be "teachable" and it is the attitude of LOVE toward God which makes us "receptive" to His word.

3. We may grow up in all aspects "into" Him. We grow "in the knowledge of Jesus," 2 Pet. 3:18. "Grow" here occurs in the aorist tense and speaks of the general principle and goal of growth without emphasis on the ongoing process of growth.


4. From whom the whole body: The universal church made up of men and women from many different races and social backgrounds, but all given perfect spiritual "positional" equality In Christ. 1 Cor. 12:13.

a. However, the universal body which is a positional entity, expresses itself in "time" through the many local bodies or churches.

b. And each local body basically operates totally independent from any other local body.

c. What is in view is the work of Christ to accomplish "experiential" growth in any local body that follows His truth.

5. Being fitted together: present tense to indicate the ongoing process.
The body receives its existence through Christ. This refers to the growth of the body through the "addition" of people.

6. And held together: another present tense with the same focus.
The word means "to unite." In the passive voice, it receives the action of "being united." This refers to the functional unity which is built into the local body through the proper working of the communicators who are responsible for teaching God's word.

7. Through every joint of support: Everything God has provided for the believer through His word. 2 Pet. 1:3-4

8. According to the proper working: kata + energeia + en metron (in measure)

9. Of each individual part: Refers to the function of the spiritual gifts in administrating truth to the members of a local body. (V. 4:11)

10. Causes the growth: present tense to indicate the process of growth.

11. Of the body: with emphasis on each individual. The issue here is not the growth "in number" of the body, but the personal growth of each believer as he learns Bible truth in the sphere of love.

12. For the edification of itself: oikodomā = growth builds a "house" in the soul. A house of knowledge principles.

13. In love: Love is the ultimate character quality of this structure. As all the other characteristics of Christian virtue are built they are emanating "from" love and leading "to" a greater manifestation and application of love. Described at 1 Cor. 13:4-7 and Gal. 5:22-23 and 2 Peter 1:5-8.

14. So then, Love is the goal and love is the means and the result then is basically, a LOVE STRUCTURE.

A. Pursuing the growth process THROUGH basic love dedication as at Eph. 3:17.

B. Reaching the goal of the love structure which is the experiential knowledge of Christ's love as at Eph. 3:19.

C. CF. Philip. 1:9

3. Divine provision for growth:

A. Written word of God: 2 Tim. 3:16-17
B. The Holy Spirit: indwelling and filling/influence. Jn. 16:12-15; 1 Cor. 2:10-14.
C. Communication gifts: Eph. 4:11-16; Col. 1:28-29
D. Fellowship with others in local assembly worship: Heb. 3:12-14; 10:24-25

4. The attitude of growth:

A. Psalm 51:6, Recognize that God desires truth in the soul.
B. 1 Pet. 2:2, Like a newborn babe, desire the word
C. 2 Tim. 2:15, diligence

5. The consistency of growth: DAILY

A. Food analogy: Mat. 4:4; 1 Pet. 2:2 - we must eat daily
B. Life principle: Prov. 4:13; Deut. 6:1-9; 32:44-47 - It is your life.
C. Prov. 8:32-35, "watching daily at my gates."
D. Daily encouragement from others: Heb. 3:7, 13, 15
E. Redeem the time. Eph. 5:16; Psalm 90:7-12, "Teach us to assign our days so that may gain a heart of wisdom."

6. The fruit of growth: Basically, the character quality of love.

A. 1 Tim. 1:5, The goal of the instruction is love
B. Col. 1:9-12
C. Proverbs 24:3-4
D. Rom. 15:4, 13; 1 Cor. 10:6-11; 1 Pet. 1:22;
E. 2 Cor. 3:18; Gal. 4:19; Heb. 3:14; 1 Cor. 13:4-7; Gal. 5:22-23

7. The levels and progress of growth: 1 John 2:12-14; Mat. 13:18-23; Eph. 4:14; Jn. 21:15-17

A. The Baby level: basic doctrine

1. John 21:15, "bosko" type feeding, gentle.
2. Milk: 1 Cor. 3:1-3; Heb. 5:11-12
3. Salvation oriented: 1 John 2:12, sins are forgiven
4. Basic teachings about Christ. Heb. 6:1-2

a. Repentance from dead works and faith toward God -

1. Salvation doctrines
2. Morality
3. "Doubtful things"
4. grace orientation
5. faith rest
6. details of life (material things)
7. Suffering
8. Priesthood: prayer, service, giving

b. Washings: rituals; baptism and communion
c. Laying on of hands: Spiritual gifts and authority structure.
d. Resurrection
e. Eternal judgment

5. Mat. 13:19-22

a. V. 21 - undeserved suffering, persecution
b. V. 22 - Details of life, material things

B. The adolescent level.

1. John 21:16 - poimaino type teaching; rougher, reproof.
2. 1 John 2:12-14

a. Strong: consistency in character
b. Word of God abides in you: large doctrinal frame of reference.
c. Overcome the wicked one: orientation to the angelic conflict.

3. Based on "meat" rather than "milk."
More advanced doctrinal information.

C. Mature level.

1. John 21:17, bosko type teaching: gentle, more informational than exhortation and reproof.

2. Technical, detailed information about the person and work of Christ. Heb. 5:11-14

3. 1 John 2:14, Because you know Him who has been from the beginning.

a. Extensive knowledge about Christ
b. Maturing love and rapport with Christ
c. Mature consistency in follow-through to the point of John 15:14, "my friends." cf. James 2:23

This growth process is provided for each and every member of the body of Christ, but each individual has personal responsibility for progressing in growth through learning God's word.
The entire contents of the Bible is not just for the so-called "clergy" but every believer has the same responsibility for KNOWING all of it. God gave us His word to put in our SOUL not on our coffee tables.




1. The first of the 4 grace provisions for spiritual growth as outlined at 1 Peter 5:10. These are given by God to bring the believer to the place of maximum enjoyment of eternal life blessings here on earth.

A. Those blessings are in three categories:

1. Character development
2. The abundant life of peace, joy and stability.
3. Service capacity

B. This is called maturity (or completion) and is our "experiential" destiny in the plan of God.
C. It is designated as "exaltation" at 1 Peter 5:6, "humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God so that He may exalt you at the proper time."

2. Orientation to 1 Pet. 5:10

A. Verses 6-9 summarizes the activity that constitutes pursuing truth.

1. V. 6 - Humility
2. V. 7 - Trust
3. V. 8-9 - resist the deceptions of the devil in a context of extreme sufferings.

B. Verse 10a - "and after you have suffered for a little BIT."
This refers to the initial pressures and persecution that result from the positive attitude to pursue truth.

1. As a result of one's positive pursuit of truth and attendant with the initial pressures of that pursuit, God will administer the grace provisions for growth commensurate with the believer's continued involvement in the growth process.

2. The God of all grace who called you unto His eternal glory:
This refers to the salvation package. When God places us into His grace-plan he then provides additional grace to steer the believer into a consistent Christian experience here on earth.

3. These grace provisions are called, "equip, support, strengthen and stabilize."

3. The principle of 2 Tim. 3:16-17: So that the man of God might be -

A. adequate: artios - equipped and therefore capable.
B. equipped: exartidzo, perfect passive participle = fully furnished.
C. For every good work: True Christian service is through the application of bible truth into every area of life.

D. This begins with the basics and continues until there is comprehension of the "width, length, height and depth" of God's truth (Eph. 3:18).

4. The principle of Eph. 4:12: The purpose and result of the growth process utilizing God's policy for growth via the communication gifts. "For the EQUIPPING of the saints."

5. Thus the details of equipping grace fall into 4 categories.

A. The word itself as revelation from God: 2 Tim. 3:16-17; Rom. 15:4
B. Communication gifts for instruction: Eph. 4:11-12; 1 Thes. 5:12; 2 Tim. 2:2.

C. The local church as the classroom for instruction: 1 Cor. 14:9, 26-33; Heb. 10:25

D. The indwelling Holy Spirit as the teacher: 1 Cor.2:10-12; Jn. 14:26

6. Equipping grace provides the believer with the basic orientation needed to protect against the deluding influence of darkness doctrine. Eph. 4:13a, 14

A. Paul refers to that orientation as the "belt of truth" (Eph. 6:14).
B. Peter calls it the "milk of the word," (1 Pet. 2:1-2).

1. Paul at 1 Cor. 3:2
2. Hebrews 5:12

C. At Hebrews 5:12, it is also called the "elementary principles of the oracles of God."

D. Hebrews 6:1-2 lists the outline of the basics.
E. Paul's list is found at Eph. 4:3-6 under the heading, "The unity of the Spirit." Thus the designation, The 7 unity doctrines.

F. At Eph. 3:17, the success of equipping grace is called, "having been rooted."
G. Also at Col. 2:7, "having been rooted."

7. The whole perspective of the book of Hebrews is utilization of equipping grace so that God's support grace will become a reality.

A. Heb. 2:1 - Utilize equipping grace.
B. Heb. 2:5 through 5:10 - Orientation to support grace.
C. Heb. 5:11 through 6:8 - refocus on equipping grace because of the apparent deficiency in the recipients of the letter.

D. Heb. 6:9 through 12:3 - Amplification of support grace.
E. Heb. 12:4-29 - Orientation to divine justice as motivation to advance in the Christian way of life through spiritual growth.

F. Heb. 13 - final words of exhortation: v. 20-22 - get equipped.

8. The necessary attitude to utilize equipping grace can be summed up by three concepts.

A. TEACHABILITY: Teachability is the attitude that applies humility, honesty and objectivity in the study of God's word.

1. Humility recognizes one's need for instruction. It combats the independence of the sin nature by recognizing divine authority and policy as having jurisdiction over your life.
This is "the fear of the Lord" which is "the beginning of knowledge" as per Proverbs 1:7

2. Honesty is the genuine desire to come to a knowledge of truth.

3. Objectivity is application of the literal, historical, grammatical system of interpretation for the Bible.


B. TRUST: Trust combats sorrow and pressure factors by recognizing and using the promises of God for support here on earth. 1Pet. 5:7-9

C. REJOICING: Rejoicing combats sorrow and pressure attitudes by recognizing the benefits in following God's policy for life. James 1:2-4; 2 Cor. 13:11


9. The command to utilize God's equipping grace is simply to "grow" through both content and application. 1 Pet. 2:1-2; 2 Pet. 3:18; James 1:21
Application of the 7 "therefores" of 1 Peter.

10. The orientation that results from utilizing equipping grace (ie, learning the basics) paves the way for experiencing a consistent "faith rest life."

A. Faith rest is the life-style of knowing and trusting the promises of God for every situation and circumstance in life.

B. The availability of these promises comes form God's "support grace."

C. But even though the promises go beyond the basics, all the promises "hang" on the basics.

D. Equipping grace provides the basic outline.

E. Support grace puts meat on the bones.

F. Support grace shows us how the essence of the Godhead works out specifics in our life so we can continue to advance.

G. But without the basics, we won't have the capacity to understand the support from God found in His promises.

H. In order to truly claim a promise and fulfill Philip. 4:6, "stop worrying," we must understand the spiritual reality behind the promise.

1. It is not enough to say, "just trust God."

2. It is not enough to quote a promise.

3. It is not a religious or emotional "mechanic."

4. It is a total trust based on knowing beyond any shadow of doubt, that God is in control and is working all things together for spiritual value, not only in His plan, but for your personal life as well. That is what His goal is.

5. Illustrated at 1 Peter 1:13 and verses 17-21

11. As cultivation for "teachability" see Topic: The Urgency of Spiritual Growth.



1. It is the second grace provision from God for the believer's progress to spiritual maturity. 1 Pet. 5:10 (Growth graces)

A. It is support from the Godhead based on our success in being equipped with the spiritual assets given to us in the Word.

B. Basically, it is the "Way of escape" of 1 Cor. 10:13, so that we will be able to handle any pressure, crisis or adversity.

C. It is comprised of all the promises of God given to us for every situation in "Life and godliness," and for advance in character strength. 2 Peter 1:3-4

2. Support grace is designed to give you what you need to put truth into practice through endurance and your spiritual growth currently achieved. Romans 5:3-5; James 1:2-4

A. Endurance through "Faith-rest" is the basis for character vindication and the blessing that results. dokimā, Romans 5:4a

B. Application of support grace (claiming promises) allows strengthening grace to fulfill its work. James 1:4, "Let endurance have its perfect result."

1. This is the glorification process of 2 Corinthians 3:18.

2. And the partaking of the Divine nature at 2Peter 1:4

C. And the character consistency that is produced is the basis for experiencing the stabilizing grace of the abundant life. Rom. 5:4b, confidence (with Rom. l5:13)

D. So then, the support grace of God is the provision of promises to comfort and encourage the believer in order to advance in growth and experience ELB. (Eternal life Blessings-in time)

1. Doctrinal facts and principles from equipping grace provide orientation to LIGHT and protection from darkness deception. (academic emphasis)

2. Support grace gives those facts substance.

3. It shows us how the essence of God works out specifics in our life through the combination of facts and promises to motivate us for further advance.

E. Degrees of blessing based on advance through the 4 "growth" graces of 1 Pet.5.10

1. Blessing through perception: Equipping grace - Jer. 15:16
2. Blessing through faith-rest: Support grace - Phil. 4:6-8
3. Blessings of character consistency: strengthening grace
4. Blessings through stability: Stability grace - Peace, joy and confidence

3. The principle of support: 1 Pet. 5:10

A. 2 Thes. 2:16-17
B. 1 Thes. 3:12-13
C. 2 Cor. 1:3-4
D. 2 Cor. 7:6

4. God's support for protection:

A. 2 Thes. 3:3-5
B. Shield of Faith: Eph. 6:16
C. Doctrine of Faith-rest: Heb.4:9-16

5. God's word as the source of support: Rom. 1:11; 16:25

6. Support provided through the communicators.

A. Luke 22:32
B. 1 Thes. 3:2-8
C. Rom. 1.11

7. The believer's responsibility for support:

A. Jas 5:8
B. Rev.3:2
C. Example of Jesus: Luke 9:51
D. Eph. 6:16:

1. Put on -v. 13 - aorist active imp.
2. Stand firm - v. 14 - aorist active imp.

E. 1 Pet.4:1 with 2:23 - Trust (operation faith-rest)

8. The nature of support:

A. God's character:
B. God's plan:
C. God's actions:

9. Many uses of the word "parakaleō" is a reference to the principle of

support grace from God.

A. Acts 11:23
B. 2 Cor. 2:7
C. 2 Cor. 13:11
D. Eph. 6:22
E. Col. 2:2
F. Heb. 3:13
G. Heb. 10:25
H. 1 Peter 5:12

10. The word "paraklāsis" teaches support grace.

A. Romans 15:4
B. 1 Cor. 14:3
C. Philip. 2:1
D. 1 Tim. 4:13
E. Heb. 13:22

11. Support grace is actually the direct channel to character consistency as indicated by the word, "epistāridzō."

A. Acts 14:22
B. Acts 15:32
C. Acts 15:41
D. Acts 18:23



1. This is the THIRD grace provision for spiritual growth. The provision and blessing from God within the growth process that produces the character of Christ in the soul which strengthens the soul for a consistent imitation of that character.
1 Peter 5:10, sthenoO

2. It is part of the growth process:

A. Ephesians 3:16 - krataioO + dunamis
B. Colossians 1:11 - dunamai + dunamis

3. The process illustrated:

A. Luke 1:80 - krataioO
B. Luke 2:40 - krataioO

4. Demonstrated by Paul: 1 Thessalonians 1:5

5. Imitated by the Thessalonians: 1 Thessalonians 1:6-7 with 2:13-14

6. Principle of humility and weakness: 2 Corinthians 12:7-10

7. Fulfilled through agape love. 1 Corinthians 16:13-14

8. Character consistency is a blessing in itself, but it leads directly to the abundant life of peace, joy and stability. Colossians 1:10-14

9. Many other passages teach about this strengthening provision without using the words of power, but the principle is established by dunamai, krataioO, and sthenoO.

A. Character growth as imitation: 2 Corinthians 3:18; Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10
B. The commands of imitation: Matthew 5:48; Luke 6:36; Romans 13:14; 1 Corinthians 11:1 with 4:16; Ephesians 5:1-2; Philippians 2:1; 1 Peter 4:1; 1 John 2:6

10. God is at work in you: Philipians 2:13
Through the word: 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Hebrews 4:12



1. This is the FOURTH grace provision for spiritual growth. It is designed to bring the believer to the place of maximum stability and the experience of peace, joy and confidence. 1 Peter 5:10

2. It is the end result of the process described at 1 Peter 5:10.

A. Equipping grace: getting doctrinal content in the soul.
B. Support grace: Putting the content into practice by using the promises of God.

C. Strengthening grace: develops character strength through the combination of facts and promises.

D. Stability grace: the experience of character consistency (blameless and irreproachable) is stability. (themelioO)


3. This stability is called confidence at Romans 5:4-5, which is the 3rd leg of the abundant life. Romans15:13

4. It is described as part of the growth process:

A. Colossians 2:6-7
B. Hebrews 13:9
C. Doctrine of repetition: Philip. 3:1, securing factor, asphalās.


5. Stability gives character strength its consistency and is called blameless and irreproachable. Colossians1:22-23

6. Maximum service capacity is based on stability. Hebrews 3:14

7. Principle of never stumbling. 2 Peter 1:10-11; John 16:1

GROWTH: The Urgency of Spiritual Growth

1. The reality of ignorance:

A. Former ignorance as an unbeliever: 1 Peter 1.14

B. Therefore grow in respect to your salvation: 1 Peter 2.1-2

C. Paul's desire: Rom. 11.25; 1 Cor. 10.1; 12.1; 1 Thes. 4.13

D. The failure factor: Heb. 3.7-11

2. The intensity of the conflict:

A. The roaring lion: 1 Pet. 5.8

B. The days are evil: Eph. 5.16

C. The night has now advanced: Rom. 13.11-14

D. A spiritual conflict requires spiritual resources.2Cor.10.3-6

3. The power of the old sin nature:

A. Defilement: Mark 7.20-23

B. Corruption: Gal. 6.7-8

C. Deception: Hebrews 3.13

D. Enslavement: Romans 6.16 with v. 13a

4. The potential for doctrinal deception:

A. The waves and winds of false doctrine: Eph. 4.14

B. The Satanic messengers of light: 2 Cor. 11.13-15

C. Doctrines of demons: 1 Tim. 4.1

D. False teachers and the unsuspecting: Rom. 16.17-18

5. The potential for moral deception:

A. False teachings on marriage: 1 Tim. 4.3a

B. False teachings on diet: 1 Tim. 4.3b-5

C. False teachings on government: 1 Pet. 2.13-15; Pr. 24.21

D. Family, social action, environment, etc.

6. Events in the course of time: making decisions

A. Gen. 4.3

B. Preparation: Proverbs 2.1-17

C. Failure: Proverbs 1.24-33

7. Principle of reversion (backsliding): Hebrews 5.11-14

A. The loss factor: 2 Jn. 8

B. The memory factor: 2 Pet. 1.9; Heb. 12.5

C. The desertion factor: Rev. 2.4-5; Heb. 3.12

8. The threat of famine. Amos 8.11

A. Via false teachers: 2 Tim. 3.13; Jude 4

B. Religious Government: Acts 5.17-29

C. Political government: Dan. 3.13-18; 6.6-10

9. The urgency of service:

A. Intensity of desire: Acts 4.20

B. The need of others: 2 Tim. 4.1-5

C. The accuracy factor: 2 Tim. 2.15

D. The false teacher factor: Titus 1.9-11

E. The shortened time factor: 1 Cor. 7.29

10.The progress of consequences: Ezek 18.30-32; Jer. 4.14

A. Natural consequences: Proverbs 14.12

B. Applied consequences: Divine discipline,

1 Cor. 11.30-32; Heb. 12.6

C. The law of sowing and reaping: Gal. 6.3-10

11.Abundant life reality: John 10.10

A. Freedom: John 8.32: Gal. 5.1

B. Joy: John 15.11

C. Stability: John 16.1

D. Peace: John 16.33


GROWTH: Opposition to growth

1. Satanic opposition: 1 Pet. 5:8-9

A. James 4:7
B. 1 Thes. 3:5
C. Luke 22:31
D. Distortion of truth: 2 Cor. 11:13-15; Rom. 16:17-20

2. Sin nature opposition: Gal. 5:17; 1 Pet. 2:11

A. 1 John 2:1-16
B. 1 Pet. 1:13-25; 2:1-3
C. James 4:1-5
D. 1 Cor. 3:1-3
E. Heb. 3:13

3. Detail of life opposition: 1 Tim. 6:9-10 (material things)

A. 1 Cor. 7:28-35
B. Mat. 10:34-39
C. Mat. 6:25-34
D. 1 Tim. 6:17
E. Luke 14:15-35
F. James 4:9


GROWTH: The Pursuit of knowledge

1. The principle of BENEFIT:

A. Proverbs 19:2, not good to be without
B. Proverbs 16:20, finds good
C. Proverbs 8:35, finds life and favor from Yahweh
D. Proverbs 13:13, Reward
E. Proverbs 13:18, honor
F. Proverbs 4:10-13, fulfillment in life

2. Humility issue for the growth process: Proverbs 15:33; 1:7; 9:10
The fear (reverence) of the LORD.

3. Principle of "self-love."

A. Proverbs 19:8 - loves his own soul
B. Proverbs 15:32, He who neglects - - - despises his soul

4. The progress of wisdom:

A. Proverbs 14:6, knowledge is easy to the one with understanding
B. Proverbs 15:14, the mind of the one with understanding seeks knowledge

5. Fulfilled destiny in time: Proverbs 24:13-14 with 23:17-21

6. The classroom for truth:

A. Parents teaching: Proverbs 23:22-23; 13:1; 15:5
B. Formal teaching: Proverbs 22:17-21
C. Informal teaching: Proverbs 27:9; Heb. 3:7
D. The local church: Heb. 10:25; 13:13, 17; 1 Pet. 5:1-5; Eph. 4:11-13

7. The tragedy of failure:

A. Proverbs 18:27, stray from the words of knowledge
B. Proverbs 1:20-32
C. Proverbs 8:36, injures his soul - - - loves death.

8. The fool's attitude toward truth:

A. Proverbs 1:7 - they despise
B. Proverbs 15:5, rejects his father's instruction
C. Proverbs 18:2a, does not delight in understanding
D. Proverbs 18:2b, Only interested in his own viewpoint
E. Proverbs 23:9, despise the wisdom of your words

9. The value of truth: Psalm 19:7-14

10. Preparation for service:

A. 2 Tim. 2:15
B. 2 Tim. 3:16-17
C. 1 Pet. 3:15-16


GROWTH: Knowing Christ

1. John 17.3 - This is eternal life: This is not teaching "what" produces eternal life, but rather, what is involved with the possession of eternal life which one acquires at the very moment of time that he trusts in Christ as savior.

A. In order to: hina = purpose or goal

B. know: ginosko, present active subjunctive, know through experience

C. You: the Father

1. Salvation relationship: 1 Thes. 4.5; 2 Thes. 1.8

a. Gal. 4.9 - ginosko

b. Titus 1.16 - oida

c. 1 Cor. 1.21, the world did not come to know God, aorist active indicative, ginosko

d. 1 Jn. 2.13 - newer believers - have come to know the Father. perfect active indicative, ginosko

2. Experiential knowledge in the Christian way of life.

a. Col. 1.10 - growing in the full knowledge of God (Father)

b. 1 Jn. 5.20 - given us understanding (dianoia) so that we might be knowing (present active subjunctive, ginosko) Him, the True One.

D. And Jesus Christ: experiential rapport and fellowship

1. Phil. 3.10- ginosko, aorist active infinitive, result of content and character growth.

a. Content: Eph. 1.17-19; 4.11-13a

b. character: Christ dwelling in the heart - Eph. 3.14-17

2. Experiential reflection of his viewpoint and character -

a. Eph. 3.19 - knowing the love of Christ

b. Eph. 4.20 - learn the Christ

c. 2 Pet. 1.8 - fruitful in the full knowledge of our Lord.


2. John 17.26 - I will make your name known to them --

A. Character and content (word/commandments - V. 15.10)

B. So that your love may be in them: The Father's love through character growth.

C. And I (Christ) may be in them: imitation of Christ's love through character growth (the love structure).


3. Ephesians 1.15-20

A. Equipping grace-v.17-God gives wisdom and revelation (viewpoint and knowledge content) in the epignosis (full knowledge) of him (character and facts about the Father).

B. The result is knowledge dynamics in order to understand God's plan.

1. eyes enlightened: perfect passive participle - photidzo - indicates the result of a process

2. Thus, a state of enlightenment through possession of facts.

C. And the understanding that results is outlined by 3 factors.

That you may know - eis + perfect participle- oida

1. The confidence of his election

2. The wealth (value) of God's functional destiny for the saints. God's plan for you in time.

3. surpassing greatness of his power: the functional dynamics to experience your destiny in time.

a. Based on resurrection power - via the Holy Spirit.

b. Therefore God the H.S. indwelling and using truth to fulfill the Christian way of life in the 3 categories - character, abundant life and service

4. These 3 factors are summed up by the term - knowing Him and the power of his resurrection at Phil. 3.10


4. Eph. 3.14-20

5. Eph. 4.11-16 - equipping grace

A. V. 11 - communication gifts

B. For the equipping - katartismos

C. V. 13 - the purpose and goal

1. unity of the faith: knowledge of the 7 unity doctrines - v. 4-6.

2. And of the knowledge of the Son of God. epignōsis = full knowledge.

Basic character reflection.

3. to a complete man: content and character stability.

Related to spotless and blameless.

4. The measure of maturity which is the fullness of Christ.

Corresponds with fullness of God at Eph. 3.19

D. V. 14 - the result of knowledge content is balance and protection from the deception of darkness viewpoint.

E. V. 15 - But through following the truth in love (knowledge and application of the word)

1. We may grow up toward Him: the ultimate standard of knowledge and character maturity.

2. in all things: every area of life is touched and governed by the viewpoint and authority of God.

F. V. 16 - Maximum growth potential for the whole body -

Doctrine + spiritual gifts = maximum edification in love.

6. Ephesians 4.20-24

A. V. 20-21 - The issue of living the Christian way of life is centered around learning:

hearing and being taught

1. Hearing is perception -

2. taught indicates positive response that accepts the truth.

B. V. 22-neutralize (lay aside) the character expression (old man) of the OSN.

C. V. 23 - pursue growth process (hear and learn): renewed in the spirit

(attitude) of your mind. (content, viewpoint and character).

1. de - mild to indicate the process of putting off the old --

CF. Rom. 12.2 and 1 Pet. 1.13-16

2. kai - in v. 24, indicates the opposite of the old character.

D. V. 24 - put on the new character (man)

1. according to the standard of God (righteousness and holiness)

a. righteousness = Divine good

b. holiness = hosiotes - devotion and dedication

2. created by the truth: aorist passive participle - (principle rather than point of time) via the renewing process of V. 23 - growth


7. Ephesians 5.14-18 - awake from spiritual neutralization

A. V. 14 - the enlightenment process

1. be waking up, present active imperative, awareness through conviction via perception of truth.

2. arise: aorist active imperative, the act of recovery via 1 Jn.1.9 and attitude adjustment.

3. shine on you: future active indicative - the renewing process of character reflection

B. V. 15 - be careful to walk accurately - ie, wise vs. unwise.

C. V. 16 - use the time - principle of Ps. 90.12

"So teach us to assign our days so that we may gain a heart of wisdom."

D. V. 17 - Not foolish - but understanding what God's will is-CF. Rom. 12.2

8. Philippians 1.9-11

9. Philippians 3.8-16

10. Colossians 1.9-12

11. Colossians 2.1-3

12. I John

A. 1.1-3

B. 2.3-5

C. 3.6 with 2.24

D. 4.6-8 - transition to experiential knowledge of God the Father and fellowship with Him. (The abiding transition is made in v. 12-16)

E. 5.20


Guardian angels

1. When a person becomes a believer in Christ, he receives the special protection of a personal guardian angel. Heb. 1:14,

Are they not all ministering spirits
sent out to render service
for those who will inherit salvation.

2. This "service" is best regarded as "physical protection" in the physically antagonistic environment in which we live.

3. It is needed because of persecution and Jesus tells us that the believer's "guardian" angel is constantly "beholding the face" of the Father. This means that they are attentive to His directions and will minister to the child of God when the need arises. Mat. 18:3-10.

4. Psalm 91:11-12 also records the promise of "angelic" protection for the believer who trusts in God.

But he will give His angels charge concerning you
To guard you in all your ways
They will bear you up in your hands
Lest you strike your foot against a stone

5. It is possible that Psalm 91 has a Messianic application to it as suggested by Satan's quote to Jesus which is recorded at Mat. 4:6. But it is also possible that he was simply making a wrong application. It is certainly true that the Messiah came under special physical protection from the Father.

6. Regardless, the Psalm still has application to the child of God especially in light of the two New Testament passages already discussed.

7. Keep in mind that the guardian angel does not provide protection from temptation. That protection is only available as the believer stores God's word in the soul (Ps. 119:11 and 1 Corinthians 10:13).

8. Furthermore, the guardian angel does not "serve" when the believer is out of fellowship with God and under "physical" discipline from God.
9. It seems that the believer's angel or angels are assigned the privilege of escorting the believer to Paradise when he/she dies. Luke 16:22.

Return to topic: Angels


1. Principle of HUMILITY: James 4:13-17
basically, when we endeavor to do something, instead of "independently" just doing it, we should ask ourselves, "if the Lord will" we will EVEN live - and then do such and such.

2. Principle of RIGHT and WRONG:  The Bible gives clear guidance about what is right or wrong.

3. Principle of LOCATION: We are supposed to be involved with a local church, learning the word of God so that we can grow in our Christian life - preparing for service - which is why we are left here. If a particular activity takes us away from our pursuit of God's word in that context, we should not pursue it. 

Now - the validity of this principle depends on the "quality" of bible teaching one is getting. Some say, well - I can find a church where I am going. Perhaps - but there are NOT really a lot of churches that are teaching QUALITY information from the Word of God.

4. Principle of TIME: Similar to the principle above. Apply the command to "redeem the time, because the days are evil." (Eph. 5:16).
This relates not only to getting to good bible teaching, but also spending time with spouse and children.

5. Principle of MOTIVATION: Why do I want to do this?
Apply doctrine of rich-mindedness found at 1 Tim. 6:6-19; Mat. 6:19-34

6. Principle of OPPOSITION: Once we settle the other issues, simply proceed and be sensitive to any "significant" opposition.
    A. Perhaps the counsel of a respected friend loved one, spouse who
        says "no."
        Sad to say how many times someone has done something against
        my "biblical" counsel and ended up the worse off for it.
    B. Perhaps circumstantial mishaps as in "continually" missing
        appointments, getting sick, etc.
        Not just ONCE - but consistent circumstantial opposition.
    C. There is also the opposition that comes from within. We should be
        sensitive to how the Spirit
        works in our own soul to convict of right and wrong. Sometimes it
        just does not FEEL right.
        BUT this should ALWAYS be measured according to the other
        principles. Feeling alone is NEVER
        the concluding basis for understanding divine guidance.
        Here we have the "sub" Principle of DOUBT:  Romans 14:23,
        "whatever is not of faith is sin."

7. Principle of PRAYER: Everything else of course must be handled with an attitude of prayer.
Not so much a - "give me this" or "show me this" BUT an overall attitude of dependence on Him - as in - Ok, I will pursue this or that and depend on YOU for direction. See, if one applies the previous principles, he can pursue his endeavor without expecting some kind of "sign in the sky"
saying its ok - just allowing God to handle circumstances in His own way and own timing.




©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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