These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation

Return to LETTER bar


CAIN: The Way of Cain

Calvinism: Studies in volitional theology


Cannaanites: Destruction justified


Capital Punishment: Audio


CHRIST: The Beginning of the Creation of God - Rev. 3:14


Christ the Copybook: article

Christ the Copybook: Study outline

Christ: death. See Topic The blood of Christ

CHRIST: Deity characteristics

CHRIST: Deity in the Gospel of John

CHRIST: Example of His Earthly Life

Clothed with Christ: audio

CHRIST: Life of Christ Introduction

CHRIST: Lordship Deity

CHRIST: The Messiah is Deity


CHRIST: Messiah prophecies of first coming

CHRIST: The Only Begotten Son

CHRIST: The Rock

CHRIST: Shepherd and guardian

CHRIST: Sinlessness of Jesus

CHRIST: The Son of God

Christ: The superiorities of Christ: audio

CHRIST: Sustainment by the Holy Spirit

CHRIST: Temptation - 40 days

CHRIST: Words of Jesus on the cross

CHRISTIAN: Why Become a Christian


Christian welfare

Introduction to ChristianityPart1: audio
Introduction to ChristianityPart2: audio

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: the Alien Mentality

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: Family provisions

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: God's character applied to life

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: God's plan for the believer on earth

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE : The Divine Value System and Way of Life

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: Orientation via 1 John one

Christian Welfare

CHRONOLOGY: Messiah's first coming scheduled; D. L. Cooper


Local Church: traced through Acts

Local Church: Pillar and Foundation

CHURCH: the universal church

CHURCHES of The Revelation



The coming of the Lord: parousia


COMMUNION: The Design of the ritual




conviction of Holy Spirit: DRAWING

The Copy Book: Christ our example

Counselor: Spiritual Gift

Covenants to Israel by Dwight Pentecost





CAIN: The Way of Cain

1. The way of Cain is creature arrogance that rejects divine policy for both life and worship and tries to relate to God through one's own policies. Thus, the viewpoint and practice of religion.

2. Cain's creature arrogance first expressed itself in the area of his chosen profession.

A. The farmer who rejects dependence on the laws of nature.
B. Arrogance that defies these laws and prides itself in self-achievement.
C. Agriculture can either teach creature humility or promote creature arrogance. It all depends on the proper response to the realities of the whole agricultural process.

D. Cain viewed the success of his farming as "self-accomplishment."
E. Cain had a "creator complex" which claimed personal possession of the power demonstrated in the growth cycle.

F. Instead of recognizing the grace of God as the source, he claims his own abilities as the source.

G. His accomplishments were from his own hard work and he became independent and self-sufficient in his own mind.

3. The next step is to advance his own accomplishments as the basis for relationship and fellowship with God. Gen. 4:3

A. He rejects divine policy for relating to God. Thus, negative volition toward the gospel.

B. He rejects the meritless sacrifice of a lamb and advances his own work as the basis for spiritual reality.

C. Then when creature policy is rejected by the creator, arrogance becomes depressed and angry. Gen. 4:5

D. If the creature does not recover by adjusting to divine standards, he will begin to persecute the truth as it is evidenced in others. Gen. 4:7; 1 John 3:12

4. The distorted soul that results from creature arrogance (Ezek. 28:17) will then start to express and justify immorality in every are of life.

A. Attack on individuals: murder and various forms of social oppression. Gen. 4:23

B. Marriage: polygamy and the phallic cult. Gen. 4:23
C. Family: phallic cult activity, child abuse both in the area of authority and the body. (Illustrated by child sacrifice and the attitude of Gen. 19:8 and Judges 19:22-24)

D. Society: Operation "inquisition," blue laws, unjustified war, dictatorship and popism. (illustrated by Nimrod).

5. Cain's creature arrogance never changed its mind, but complained and argued with God about His policy of punishment as being unfair. Gen. 4:13-14

A. This is simply a reflection of Satan's own viewpoint on the subject as expressed in Job 4:12-13

B. As an unbeliever, Cain was "of the evil one" according to 1 John 3:12 and after the pattern of John 8:44, "of your father the devil."

C. Thus, it is understandable that being in such a situation, he will express the same viewpoint as Satan. John 8:44, "want to do desires of your father," "speaks the lie," "murderer."

6. The way of Cain, expressed in religion will manifest itself in two distinct ways.

A. Elevation of the physical creature above the creator. Rom. 1:23,25
B. Elevation of the heavens above the creator. Sun, moon, stars - Deut. 4:19
C. But behind it all are demons: 1 Cor. 10:20
D. Thus, it becomes more and more involved, because once you establish yourself independent from God, you open yourself up to all kinds of things. From the occult to self-deification and many combinations of the two. Col. 2:18

7. The way of life that results will fluctuate or standardize itself in 2 areas.

A. Lasciviousness: Rom. 1:24, 26-27; Lev. 18:3-25
B. Asceticism: 1 Tim. 4:1-3; Col. 2:20-23

8. So the way of Cain, as independence from God, is man trying to find himself, answers and purpose for his life in any way other than divine policy.

A. But all he can find is chaos, frustration and misery. Is. 57:21
B. And in the end -

1. As an unbeliever: death and judgment - Heb. 9:27
2. As a believer: production burned and himself barely saved - 1 Cor. 3:10-15



1. Mat. 19:24, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." Mark 10:25; Luke 18:25

2. This is a figure of speech used by Jesus to illustrate the impossibility of adjusting to God WHILE clinging to darkness, materialistic values.

3. Jesus uses a similar figure of speech in Mat. 23:24 to illustrate the extreme in spiritual blindness.

A. Blind guides: Mat. 15:14, both fall into the ditch
B. Strain out a gnat: the religious custom of straining wine to avoid eating any uncleanness (such as a bug).

C. The gnat represents the smallest animal in the land which they try so hard to avoid through their religious legalism.

D. The camel represents the largest animal in the land and is symbolic of the greater spiritual error.

E. This is explained by v. 25-28, and specifically, v. 28, "on the inside they are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness."

4. There is suggestion that this was a common proverbial expression but there is no record in other literature.

A. Examples of a similar proverb occur in the rabbinical writings of the Talmud.
Ber 55b; BM 38b, "elephant through the eye of a needle."

B. This was used to illustrate something that is an impossibility.

C. It is best to take the figure as it stands rather than thinking that Jesus quoted a cultural proverb.

5. The problem with the figure is that for a long time scholars thought that needles did not exist at the time.

A. But they did exist as demonstrated by the finds of archaeologists.
B. As well as the fact that 2 words are used by the gospel writers. This indicates the existence of two types of needle.

6. The 2 words used:

A. Mat and and Mark use "raphis" which refers to a regular sewing needle.
B. Luke uses "belonā" which is a surgical needle.
C. Some have claimed that "raphis" refers to a small gate in a walled city but there is no evidence of the existence of such a thing.

D. The fact that 2 words are used also indicates that no corresponding proverb existed in Greek culture.

E. So once again, the figure should be taken as it stands, and not as a proverb.

7. Another problem with the figure is the genuine impossibility of a camel going through the eye of a "sewing" needle. In fact it is considered absurd.

A. The disciples express this problem and also try to indicate to us that the idea of impossibility is what they heard form Jesus. Mat. 19:25

B. But that is the very issue. v. 26, "It is impossible for man."

1. Jesus used the word "adunatos" to indicate exactly what He meant.

2. Man is helpless: Rom. 5:6

C. But with god all things are possible.

1. John 1:13
2. God is able to save completely - Heb. 7:25, eis to pantelās: adjective= complete, perfect, absolute.
pas + telos, qualitative and temporal = absolutely
The prepositional phrase is adverbial in function - so the idea is "absolutely."

8. To deal with the absurdity of the figure, scholars have played with the word for camel.

A. The word for camel is, "kamālos".
B. There are several later manuscripts which have the word, "kamilos."

C. Some scholars claim that "kamilos" is the original and means "rope."
D. This reduces the absurdity and impossibility to a difficulty but still "possible" act.

E. The problem is that no such word exists in NT Greek. Kamilos may indeed be a later addition to the language, and truly ancient "to us," but non-existent before 150 AD.

F. The rise of kamilos for kamālos can be explained by the evolution of the pronunciation of the language.

G. As early as AD 150, the "eta" was being pronounced like an "iota." So it is not a surprise to see the form kamilos in place of kamālos. Robertson, page 191.

H. Also, there is no need to try to compromise the severity of the figure since Jesus used such severity elsewhere as in Mat. 23:24.


CAPITAL PUNISHMENT: Principles from Israel

1. Regulations for protection of Israel's social stability and national heritage.
These are mandates for the nation of Israel and not for any other nation, nor are these mandates for the church.

A. The church is never authorized to administer capital punishment. The church administrates discipline through instruction and "separation."

B. These principles serve other nations as a pattern for a national structure. Maximum social and moral stability will only be realized in a national entity as it adopts and follows the principles God gave.

2. The potential for social chaos through various immoral activities is recognized by the severity of punishment that God mandates for those activities.

3. So then, if there are not severe punishments for these activities, people without moral character will have no restraint to the expression of that immoral character. Ec. 8:11

4. To the extent that these immoralities are overtly controlled through severe punishment, moral stability will be realized and preserved. Proverbs 29:4

5. List of capital offenses:

Murder: Num. 35:16-21, 29-31
Kidnapping: Ex. 21:16
Rebellion against parents: Ex. 21:15, 17
Sorcery: Ex. 22:18
Bestiality: Ex. 22:19
Adultery: Lev. 20:10
Incest: Lev. 20:11-12
Homosexuality: Lev. 20:13
Rape: Deut. 22:23-29
Idolatry: Deut. 13:6-11



1. Capital punishment is when the ruling body of a society executes a person who has flagrantly destroyed the life of another person.

2. The divine mandate for capital punishment is first found at Gen. 9:6 in connection with murder.

3. This is a moral guideline designed to preserve freedom and stability within a society. Ec. 8:11

4. The purpose of capital punishment:

A. To punish the offender so that he can't participate in societal life blessings since he ruined those blessings for someone else.

B. For the protection of others: So that he does not do it again.

C. As a deterrent to others: Ec. 8:11

Principle at Deut. 21:22-23, hanging on a tree after execution.

5. Capital punishment as a moral policy designed by God, functions as a fulfillment of man's need for personal vengeance.

A. For the unbeliever:

1. The policy only works if it is utilized by society. Prov. 20:28
2. Otherwise, revenge anarchy will occur.
3. In Israel: The blood avenger - Num. 35:19-21
4. The cities of refuge: Numbers 35:9-28

B. For the believer:

1. It is a matter of faith rest through understanding the character and plan of God. Rom. 12:17-21

2. Technically, it does not matter whether society is fulfilling its role or not. The justice of God is always on the side of the functional believer so that Romans 8:28 always applies.

6. When a society fails to follow the moral mandate for capital punishment, the result is anarchy. Ec. 8:11

A. Example of Lamech: Gen. 4:19-24
B. Example of Sodom: Gen. 19:4-9
C. Apply Numbers 35:31 - no ransom for the murderer

7. The only exception to this moral mandate is when Divine intervention deals with the person in another manner.

A. The first such example recorded in the Bible is Cain, an unbeliever.

1. The murder of Abel was a spiritual issue. It was persecution because of a believer's righteous testimony. 1 John 3:12

2. God has never authorized capital punishment as a policy for the spiritual warfare. 2 Cor. 10:3-4

3. Cain's life was spared so that his "existence" would be a teaching aid in the spiritual conflict.

B. Another example is David, a believer. His life was spared so that divine discipline could make a spiritual impact in his life and provide a teaching aid for other believers. Job 33:29-30; Heb. 12:10-11; 1 Cor. 10:6, 11; Rom. 15:4

8. Paul supports the divine morality mandate for capital punishment at Romans 13:1-7.

9. Accordingly, there is a possibility that the carnal believer might come under the moral mandate of capital punishment for his sins. 1 Peter 4:14-15

10. Jesus' "turn the other cheek" doctrine has nothing to do with capital punishment. Mat. 5:38-39

The issue there is "personal conflicts" and "persecution conflicts."

11. Comments on "cruel and unusual" punishment.

A. The concern about C. and U. comes from human viewpoint.
Misdirected social zeal and the misconception that the criminal offender has rights.

B. He lost his rights the very moment that he usurped the rights of another person.

C. God's method of capital punishment given to Israel was designed to cause a great deal of pain to the offender and therefore a personal consciousness of the crime he committed.

D. That method was stoning: Lev. 20:2

And after stoning, the offender was publicly displayed on a tree for everyone to see. Deut. 21:22-23

E. We will probably never sway those who are "hung up" on this C. and U. thing, but for the one who is positive to Bible Truth, we can at least present the divine viewpoint.

12. The example of Israel: The instructions given to Israel serve as a divine viewpoint pattern for other nations, but they are not mandated for other nations.

A. Personal responsibility: Deut. 24:16
B. List of capital offenses.

1. Murder: Num. 35;16-21, 29-31
2. Kidnapping: Ex. 21:16
3. Rebellion against parents: Ex. 21:15, 17; Deut. 21:18-21
4. Sorcery: Ex. 22:18; Lev. 20:27
5. Bestiality: Ex. 22:19
6. Adultery: Lev. 20:10
7. Incest: Lev. 20:11-12
8. Homosexuality: Lev. 20:13
9. Rape: Deut. 22:23-29
10. Idolatry: Deut. 17:5-7; (13:6-11-teaching idolatry)
11. Violation of sanctuary sanctity: Num.1:51; 3:10; 3:38; 18:7
12. Blasphemy: Lev. 24:16
13. Child sacrifice: Lev. 20:2
14. False prophet: Deut. 18:20
15. Deception of a bride: Deut. 22:21
16. Not abiding by the ruling of the court: Deut. 17:8-13
17. Violation of sabbath ritual: Ex. 31:14-15; 35:2

C. TWO WITNESSES REQUIRED: Numbers 35:30; Deut. 17:6



1. God's evaluation in Gen. 2 of "not good for the man to be alone," does not deny happiness to someone who lives in single status.

2. That evaluation is indeed applicable to all men, but only in a context of perfect environment.

3. Perfect environment has not existed in the human race sine the fall of man in the garden.

A. Man now lives in a world of imperfection.
B. Therefore the blessing of marriage is not equally available to all men.
C. There are birth defects and diseases.
D. There are oppressive humans.
E. There exists a spiritual conflict that takes priority over the details of life.
F. Each one of these factors may require that someone live in a celibate status for all or part of his life.

4. The existence of "eunuchs." Mat. 19:10-12

A. V. 10, the disciples respond to Jesus' teaching on the permanence of marriage.

1. Relationship . . . like this: the rigidity of the marriage bond - thinking of it as a bondage rather than a grace provision from God.

2. Better not to marry: states the principle of benefit related to celibacy, but for the wrong motives.

B. v. 11, Jesus confirms the principle of benefit, but relates it to spiritual viewpoint.

1. Not all men accept: chōreō means to have room for. (present active indicative) Ie, To relate to and accept the spiritual principle of benefit.

2. those to whom it has been given: didomi - perfect passive part. -
Spiritual capacity to understand truth and to recognize its superior value over everything else in life.

3. Cf. Mat. 13:10-13

4. And specifically, a "voluntary eunuch." One who sacrifices participation in marriage in order to devote a maximum amount of time to the cultivation and promotion of God's truth.

C. v. 12, there are 3 types of eunuch.

1. The congenital eunuch: born that way; no normal experience of libido or a birth defect that prevents physical activity.

2. Castrated eunuch: done by man

3. Voluntary eunuch:

a. made themselves: eunouchidzō - aorist active indicative.

b. for the kingdom of God: dia + accusative = because of. ie, promotion of kingdom viewpoint and policy.

4. He who is able: present active participle - dunamai - spiritual capacity.

5. to accept: chōreō- present active infinitive - understand and receive.

6. Let him accept: present active imperative - let that one make the personal application to his own life.

D. The example of Paul: 1 Cor. 9:3-6, 23

5. The existence of single status:

A. The your prior to marriage: apply the doctrine of courtship.

B. The widow:

1. The older: 1 Tim. 5:9-10
2. The younger: 1 Tim. 5:11-15

C. Widower: Apply doctrine of courtship

D. Divorced as per Mat. 19:9: right to remarry
Apply doctrine of courtship

E. Divorced as per 1 Cor. 7:10-11 - no right of remarriage.

F. Divorced as per 1 Cor. 7:12-15

G. The voluntary eunuch as with Paul. 1 Cor. 9:3-6

6. Prinicple of undistracted devotion to God. 1 Cor. 7:32-35

7. Resolution: 1 Cor. 7:28, "not sinful to marry."



I. Introduction

1. The life of Jesus is the copy book from where we find the secret to the imitation of God. 1 Peter 2:21; Matthew 11:29

2. He is our example in growth: Luke 2:40, 52; Hebrews 5:8
The humility of teachability - Isaiah 50:4-5

3. He is our example in fellowship: John 8:29; 15:10; Matthew 3:13-17

4. He is our example in temptation: Matthew 4:1-10; Hebrews 4:15 Psalm 119:11; 1 Corinthians 10:13

5. He is our example in witnessing: John 4:27-38

6. He is our example in humility: John 13:12-17

7. He is our example in self sacrifice:
Romans 15:1-3; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Ephesians 5:2

8. He is our example in persecution: 1 Peter 2:22-23

9. He is our example in forgiving others:
Luke 23:34; Colossians 3:12-13

10. Not only do we learn the character expressions of Jesus, but we also learn details about the plan of God. Jesus is the focal point for fulfilling the plan of the Godhead and in Him dwells all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge (Colossians 2:3).

11. Thus, in conjunction with the apostolic writings, we progress in growth to the fulfillment of Ephesians 3:14-19.

II. The Incarnation

1. John 1:1-18
2. Philippians 2:6-8
3. The virgin birth

CHRIST: His Earthly Life and Example From the Perspective of His Attitudes and Actions.

1. The value of this study is based on 1 Peter 2:21.

Jesus is our Example. The word, example, translates the Greek word, hupogrammos which occurs only here in the New Testament. The word is formed from the preposition, "hupo," which means under, and "grammos" which means, writing or letter.

For example, the word scribe, is grammateus
and means one who is skilled in letters or writing.

This word means a "copybook" like what was used as an education tool. It provided either some image or letter to trace over, or a letter or image to "copy" underneath.

Jesus is our copybook. We focus on His image written on the pages of Scripture and seek to write it in our own life through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. As we imitate the copybook of Christ's life by "underwriting" His character in our soul, we will learn to follow in His steps and reflect His love and righteousness.
See Topic: Christ Our Copybook for article and a second study outline

2. Christ's humility dependence on the Father is the first point of focus. Jesus did nothing out from Himself. He depended completely on God the Father and the sustaining presence of the Holy Spirit to accomplish the plan of the Godhead for his earthly life.

A. John 5:19, Jesus therefore answered and was saying to them,

"Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself,
unless {it is} something He sees the Father doing;
for whatever {the Father} does, these things the Son also does in like manner.

B. John 5:30, "I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear,

I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will,
but the will of Him who sent Me.

C. John 10:18; John 12:49-50; 14:9-12

3. Jesus was always totally obedient to the viewpoint and policy of God the Father.

A. John 8:29,
"And He who sent Me is with Me;
He has not left Me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to Him."

B. John 4:34; 6:38; 15:10

4. Promotion of the truth. John 18:37, "For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth.

A. Diligence in growth: Luke 2:40, 52; Isaiah 50:4-5
B. Conformity to God's will: Matthew 3:15-17; 26:39
C. Consistent application: Matthew 4:1-10; 1 Peter 2:21-23
D. Proclamation of truth: John 3:31-34
E. Evangelistic minded: Matthew 4:17; Mark 1:14-15; Luke 19:10
F. Not isolationist: Matthew 9:36-38
G. Compassion: Matthew 9:36-38
H. Discerning: Matthew 7:29; Luke 4:32

5. Jesus was always authoritative. Matthew 7:29; Luke 4:32

A. No compromise: Matthew 10:34-39; Mark 3:20-35
B. No watering down of justice: Matthew 11:20
C. Exposed legalism: Matthew 12:9-14
D. Exposed man's sin nature: Matthew 12:34-37; Mark 7:21-23
E. Exposed error: Luke 6:6
F. Exposed emotionalism: Luke 11:27-28
G. Exposed false teachers: Matthew 16:5-12; 23:1-15, 23-31; 7:15-28
H. Exposed rich mindedness: Luke 18:18-27

6. Genuine sorrow toward man's hardness of heart. Mark 3:5; John 11:30-45.
But also proper anger and rebuke - Mark 8:14-21 and 6:52.

7. Compassion toward discomfort, disease and oppression

A. Matthew 14:14; 15:32; 20:29-34
B. But in the context of fulfilling prophecy.

1. Luke 7:11-23 with Isaiah 35:5-6
2. Matthew 8:16-17 with Isaiah 53:4

8. Forgiving of those who committed personal injury to Him.
Luke 23:33-34 with Matthew 12:32

9. No ritual enslavement: Matthew 11:1-8 (9-14); 15:1-2, 10-20; Mark 7:5-13

10. Consistent in prayer: Luke 5:16, 6:12

11. Control over detail of life distractions.

A. Family: Matthew 12:46-50
B. Food: Matthew John 4:31-34; Matthew 4:4
C. Sensitive about necessity details of life. Matthew 15:32
D. Social life: Luke 7:36f; 11:37; 19:1-7
E. Interaction with children: Luke 18:15-16
F. Time:

1. With the multitudes:
2. With the 12
3. With the THREE: Matthew 26:36-46; 17:1-9; Luke 8:51
4. Alone: Mark 1:35

G. Politics: Matthew 17:24-27; 22:17-21

12. The issue of credentials: Luke 20:1-8; John 7:14-18

13. No cultural or racial prejudice: John 4:1-26

14. Common sense approach to danger: John 7:1 with 4:1-3
But applied doctrine of timing: John 14:31; 18:1-11, 36-40; John 7:30; 8:30; 19:1-11

15. Humility and service: John 13:12-16

16. Endurance under undeserved suffering: 1 Peter 2:21-23

17. Application of beneficent love: John 13:1, 33-35; 15:10-14; Ephesians 5:1-2;

CHRIST: What Jesus said on the cross

A. The first three hours on the cross:

1. The first phrase: Luke 23:34

a. Father forgive them:

1. From His priesthood: he is going to pay for that sin.

2. From His character: he has no axe to grind. 1 Pet. 2:22-23

b. For they do not know what they are doing:

1. Know: oida - perfect active indicative plus negative, ou

2. But Jesus had told them many times. Jn. 8:12; 11:25

2. The second phrase: Luke 23:43

a. Both thieves turned against Him at first. Mt. 27:44

b. But one later believed: Luke 23:41-42

c. The certainty of our salvation is represented by this incident.

3. The third phrase: John 19:26-27

a. v. 26, He said to His mother, Woman behold your son: Turning her care and protection over into the hands of John, whom he could trust with the task.

b. His brothers were not yet believers (Jn. 7:5-6) although we know that at least James and Jude became believers after the resurrection. Acts 1:14

c. So it is not expedient that he leave the care of his mother in the hands of unbelieving brothers.

d. Then he said to the disciple, behold your mother: application to us based on Eph. 6:1-2


B. The last three hours on the cross: (actually, at the end of the last hour)

1. The fourth phrase: My God, My God, Why have you forsaken me?

Mt. 27:46; Mk. 15:34; Ps. 22:1

a. The agony of His spiritual sacrifice: Is. 53:11a

b. Separation from God as payment for sin. Jn. 1:29; 1 Pet. 2:24; Mt. 10:28

2. The fifth phrase: Jn. 19:28 - I thirst -

a. It reminds us of his true humanity:

1. He is the savior: Heb. 2:14-15

2. He is the priest: Heb. 2:17-18

3. He is the king: the seed of David (Luke 1:32-33)

b. It reminds us of the faithfulness of God in fulfilling His word. Cf. Psalm 69:21; 22:15

3. The sixth phrase: John 19:30 - it is finished

a. It is finished: teleioo - perfect passive indicative

b. Stamped on the "paid" bills to indicate the release of further obligation.

c. Communicates the completion of salvation. The once and for all sacrifice of Heb. 10:12, 14.

4. The seventh phrase: Luke 23:46

a. Father: indicates that he is no longer separated from contact with Him.

b. This communicates propitiation: God is satisfied with Christ's work. Rom. 3:25; 1 Jn. 2:2

c. into your hands I dismiss: paratithemi - present middle indicative (place beside)

d. my spirit: the human spirit of Jesus leaves the body and the body dies. Ec. 12:7; Job 34:14-15;

e. The physical death of Christ provides for the Resurrection as a proof of Christ's character and work. Acts 17:31


CHRIST: Prophecies of the Messiah's first coming.

1. The plan of God from eternal past: Eph. 3:11; 1:4; 1 Pet. 1:20; Acts 2:23

2. The time of His coming: Dan. 9:25; Gal. 4:4
(483 years from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem)

3. His humanity

A. The seed of the woman: Gen. 3:15; fulfilled @ Gal. 4:4
B. Seed of Abraham: Gen. 12:7; 13:15; fulfilled @ Gal. 3:16
C. From Israel: Numbers 24:17 fulfilled @ Mat. 1:1-17
D. From Judah: Gen. 49:10 fulfilled @ Mat. 1:1-3
E. From David: Isaiah 11:1, 10 fulfilled @ Luke 1:31-33
F. Virgin birth: Isaiah 7:14 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 1:18

4. Born in Bethlehem: Micah 5:2 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Luke 2:4-7

5. Time in Egypt: Hosea 11:1 (700 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 2:14-15

6. His herald: Isaiah 40:3 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 3:3

7. Sustainment by the Holy Spirit: Isaiah 61:1 fulfilled @ Jn. 1:32-34; Lk. 4:16-21

8. Healing ministry: Isaiah 53:4a fulfilled @ Mat. 8:17

9. Despised and rejected: Isaiah 53:3 fulfilled @ Mat. 26:15

10. Sold for 30 pieces of silver: Zech. 11:12 (400 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 26:15

11. Betrayed by a friend: Ps. 41:9 (900 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 26:49-50; Jn. 13:18

12. Forsaken by his disciples: Zech. 13:7 (400 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 26:31

13. Spit upon and scourged: Isaiah 50:6 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 26:67-68; 27:30

14. Nailed to the cross: Psalm 22:16 (900 years before) fulfilled @ Luke 23:33

15. Mocked on the cross: Ps. 22:7-8 (900 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 27:39-40

16. Crucified with criminals: Isaiah 53:9-12 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Mk. 15:27-28

17. Buried as a rich man: Isaiah 53:9 (600 years before) fulfilled @ Mat. 27:57-60

18. Raised from the dead: Psalm 16:10 (900 years before) fulfilled @ Acts 2:24-33; 17:31

19. Ascension and session: Ps. 110:1 (900 years before) fulfilled @ Rom. 8:34; Eph. 1:20-23




1. The Word became flesh: Jn. 1.14

A. 1 Tim. 3.16

B. Phil. 2.6-8

2. God gave:

A. Jn. 3.16

B. Acts 2.23 - delivered up by the plan of God

C. Gal. 4.4 - sent forth

3. God sent:

A. Him who sent me: Mk. 9.37; Lk. 9.48; 10.16; Jn. 5.23, 24, 30, 36-38

B. Luke 4.18 - to proclaim release to the captives

C. Luke 4.18 - recovery of sight to the blind

D. - set free those who are downtrodden

E. - To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord.

F. Luke 4.43 - to proclaim the kingdom

G. Jn. 3.17 - not to judge the world but to save it.

H. Jn. 3.34 - He whom God sent.

I. Acts 3.26 - God sent him to bless you, by turning you from your wicked ways.

4. Messiah -- came:

A. Mt. 5.17 - To fulfill the law

B. Mt. 10.34-35 - I came to bring a sword

C. Mk. 1.38 - To proclaim (the gospel)

D. Jn. 1.9 - The true light coming into the world, enlightens every man

E. Jn. 3.19 - light has come into the world

F. Jn. 6.38, 41 - came down out of heaven

G. Jn. 6.51, 58 - the bread that came down out of heaven

H. Jn. 8.42 - I have come from God

I. Jn. 9.39 - for judgment I came ( to expose spiritual deficiency)

J. Jn. 10.10 - That they might have life and abundance

K. Jn. 12.27 - Came to fulfill His hour

L. Jn. 12.46 - as light into the world

5. He appeared:

A. 1 Jn. 3.5 - to take away the sins

B. 1 Jn. 3.8 - to destroy the works of the devil

C. Heb. 9.11 - as a high priest

D. 1 Peter 1.20 - in these last times for the sake of you (believers)

E. 1 Jn. 1.2 - the life was manifested to us

F. Heb. 9.26 - to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself

6. Jesus gave himself:

A. Gal. 1.4 - for our sins

B. 1 Tim. 2.6 - a ransom for all

C. Titus 2.14 - for us


CHRIST: The Beginning of the Creation of God - Rev. 3:14

1. The word creation: ktisis - occurs 19 times and has 5 uses.

A. physical creation: 13 times
B. Positional creation (In Christ): 2 times, 2 Cor. 5:17
Gal. 6:15, emphasizes reflection of the new creation into the Christian life. cf. Eph. 5:8.
C. A creature or created thing: 2 times - Rom. 1:20; 8:39
D. A human ordinance of government: 1 time - 1 Pet. 2:13
E. The 5th use occurs at Rev. 3:14.

1. There are 2 choices for the usage in this verse.

a. Christ is the beginning of the (physical) creation of God. In this case "beginning" would have to mean first cause rather than first created.

b. Christ is the beginning of the (resurrected) creation of God. (ktisis is not used elsewhere in that way).

2. But the fact that Christ is the first, beginning and firstborn of the resurrected "creation" is clearly taught.

a. Firstborn: prōtotokos - Rom. 8:29; Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5 (Very clearly referring to resurrection).

b. CF. firstfruits in 1 Cor. 15:20

c. Col. 1:15: prōtotokos - firstborn of all creation
Two titles mentioned in the verse.

1. The Image of the invisible God: reference to both inner and outer essence. The overt activity that conforms to the character of the Father is the act of creation - explained in v. 16-17.

2. The firstborn of all creation: reference to His preeminence in the resurrected creation - explained in v. 18 - firstborn "from the dead."

d. So also at Rev. 3:14, "the beginning of the resurrected creation of God."

2. Beginning: archā occurs 57 times and 5 uses.

A. beginning: 44 times (any kind of beginning)
B. Ruler, authority: in a political organization either human or satanic. 7 times.
C. Rule, domain or sphere of influence: 4 times
D. First cause: no examples of this in the NT unless Rev. 3:14.
E. Corner or edge: 2 times.

3. If the word creation is taken to refer to "resurrected" creation, then "beginning" makes total sense and coincides with the verses under point 1 E. For Christ is indeed the "first one" to have been resurrected.

4. Also, the three titles in Rev. 3:14 make the third one to logically refer to resurrected creation, which is the ultimate in the Messiah's career until the 2nd coming.

A. The Amen: Divine nature of absolute truth. John 14:6
B. The Faithful and true witness: Total righteousness as demonstrated in His earthly ministry.
C. The beginning of the creation of God: Physical resurrection as proof of His successful ministry and a demonstration of the Father's approval and total acceptance.

5. If the word beginning is taken as "first cause" or "originating source" or "creator":

A. Then creation refers to the physical creation.
B. No conflict: Christ is the creator. John 1:3; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2
C. But in no other place is He called "archā" to designate His creatorship.
D. He is called archā in Col. 1:18 but clearly in connection with resurrection.
E. At Rev. 1:5, He is called archōn "ruler" which is related to archā, but definitely means ruler.
F. He is called archā, 2 times to indicate His absolute existence and equality with Yahweh of Isaiah 44:6 - Rev. 21:6; 22:13, "beginning and the end."

6. So then, all factors point to the translation, "beginning of the resurrected creation of God," as being what best conforms to the rest of scripture.

7. At Rom. 8:29, "firstborn among many brethren" MUST refer to resurrection.
Christ is not the first one "born again" among many brethren.
Christ is not the first one "physically" born among many brethren.
But Christ is certainly the first one to have received a resurrection body.
Thus, "firstfruits" at 1 Cor. 15:20.


CHRIST: The Messiah is Deity

1. All Messianic passages indicate that the Messiah is Yahweh.

2. John 12:37-41 with Isaiah 6:1-13

3. Psalm 102:16-27 with Heb. 1:8-12

4. Zechariah 14:3-9; 12:1-10

5. Jeremiah 23:5-8

6. Isaiah 8:13-15 with 1 Peter 2:6-8 and Isaiah 28:16

7. Isaiah 48:1-16

8. Isaiah 44:6

A. Yahweh, the King of Israel = the Father.
B. And His Redeemer, Yahweh of the armies = the Messiah
C. Both say, "I am the first and the last."
D. See Rev. 1:8, 17; 22:13

9. Matthew 16:13-17 with John 10:30-39

10. The Last Straw: Mat. 26:63-66; Mark 14:61-64; Luke 22:66-71


CHRIST: Deity characteristics

1. Honor: Isaiah 42:8
John 5:23; Col. 1:19; 2:9; Heb. 1:3; 2 Pet. 3:18

2. Eternal: Micah 5:2; Heb. 1:8; John 8:58; Is. 44:6 cf. Rev. 1:17-18; John 1:1

3. Sovereign: Rom. 9:5; Phil. 2:9-11; John 5:21-22

4. Omnipotent: Col. 1:16-18; John 1:3; Is. 44:24; Heb. 1:3

5. Omnipresent: Mat. 28:20

6. Omniscient: John 21:17; Mat. 11:27; Col. 2:3

7. Immutable: Heb. 13:8; 1:8, 10, 12

8. Truth: John 14:6; Deut. 32:4

9. Righteous: 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 John 2:1; Deut. 32:4

10. Christ is called God: Rom. 9:5; Titus 2:13; Heb. 1:10-12; Jn. 20:28-29; 2 Pet. 1:1

11. Title, The Rock: Deut. 32:4; 1 Cor. 10:1-4

12. Title, The Glory: reference to the Shekinah presence of God in the tabernacle of Israel.
James 2:1 (Greek), "My brethren, be holding the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, The Glory, not with an attitude of personal favoritism."


CHRIST: Deity in the Gospel of John

1. Verse 1:1 - Absolute existence of the Word.

A. In the beginning refers to the beginning of the universe as per Genesis 1:1.

B. The starting point is "the beginning" because that is as far back as man's mind can conceive.

C. At that time, the Word was in existence because He had always been in existence.

2. Verse 1:1 - Intimate association and actual equality with God = deity.

3. Verse 1:2 - Repeat for emphasis

4. Verse 1:3, 10 - Omnipotence in creation: Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 1:2; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Isaiah 42:5.

5. Verse 1:4 - Source of everlasting life: 1 John 5:11-12

6. Verse 1:16 - Through impartation of salvation, we have received from His fullness. His fullness is the essence of deity. Colossians 1:19; 2:9

7. Verse 1:18 - Jesus Christ is the visible expression of deity.
No man has ever seen God except through Christ, whether in the Old Testament or New. Colossians 1:15; 2:9; Hebrews 1:3

(See Topic: Angel of the Lord)

8. Verse 1:22-27 - John the Baptizer, the herald of the Messiah, puts Him on the same level as Yahweh through quoting Isaiah 40:3.

9. Verse 1:32 - Spirit upon Him is sign of being the Messiah.
Isaiah 11:2; 42:2; 61:1-2; 48:12-16

10. Verse 1:34, 49 - Testimony that He is the Son of God:
A title that confessed equality with God (John 5:18).

11. Verse 1:49 - King of Israel: Reference to the Messiah

12. Verse 2:16 - My Father's house:
a claim to equality with the Father according to John 5:18.

13. Verse 3:16-18 - Only begotten Son of God

A. Again - equality with God (John 5:18)
B. Only begotten: Reference to the incarnation - a human birth.

14. Verse 4:25-26 - Personal claim to be the Messiah

15. Verse 5:17-18 - Title Son of God establishes equality with God.

16. Verse 5:23 - Jesus receives the honor of Yahweh because He is Yahweh come in the flesh. Isaiah 42:8

17. Verse 5:21-29 - Jesus has the authority of deity in judgment and in resurrection.

18. Verse 8:12 - Another claim to be the Messiah

19. Verse 8:58 - Claim to be Yahweh and therefore absolute existence.

20. Verse 9:38 - And he worshipped Him: not rebuked by Jesus,
but God is the only object of worship. Isaiah 42:8

21. Verse 10:27-33 - Jesus claims to be equal to God:
And the Jews understood what He meant for they tried to kill Him.

22. Verse 11:27 - Martha confesses Him to be the Messiah

23. Verse 12:15 - Another claim to be the Messiah.

24. Verse 12:37-41 - John claims that what Isaiah wrote about Yahweh-Messiah, he was writing about Jesus.

25. Verse 16:13-15 - All things that the Father has are also Christ's.

26. Verse 16:25-33 - Jesus came forth from the Father:
He is the promised "presence" of Yahweh on the earth.

27. Verse 20:26 - Thomas' confession, "My Lord and my God," is not rebuked by Jesus nor denied by Jesus.


CHRIST: The Son of God

1. Technical title referring to the God-man from the time of his incarnation.

A. He is not the Son until the incarnation. Meaning of only begotten.

monogenes-only 5 times for Christ: Jn. 1.14,18; 3.16, 18; 1 Jn. 4.9

1. genes: from gennao - to generate via procreation; men - beget, women - bear

2. monos - only one of a kind or only time of occurrence.

3. Son - male offspring via procreation

B. Adam is the son of God via the act of creation. Luke 3.38; Gen. 2.7

1. Adam's offspring are sons of Adam, not of God

(They are still considered offspring of God, but not sons-Acts 17.28-29)

2. Sons ideally, is a term of direct descent. Jn. 1.12-13

3. Adam's sons are born after his own image with a sin nature.

Gen. 5.3; Ps. 51.5

C. Angels are also sons of God via creation: Job 1.6; 38.7

1. Angels have no physical offspring except the one time violation of God's created design. Gen. 6.1-4;Jude 6-7; 1 Pet. 3.18-20; 2 Pet. 2.4

2. This has not been permitted to happen again as is suggested by the extreme punishment assigned by God. Jude 6

3. The designed "sexless" status of all angels is indicated by Jesus at Mt. 22.30.

4. However, Satan does have spiritual offspring. Gen. 3:15

John 8:44; 1 John 3:8-10; Mt. 13:38

D. Therefore, no one can be called a genes of God wherein God reproduces himself except the one who is so designated in scripture.

E. Monogenes indicates that God has reproduced himself one time in the person of Jesus Christ.

1. but this was not a generating of a "new god," but a transfer of essence from the spiritual realm into the physical.

2. The logos is his official title before the incarnation - Jn. 1:1

3. Then the word became flesh -Jn. 1:14 (ginomai, aorist middle indicative) and is called the only begotten of the Father.

4. So it is not only a relationship issue which is perpetuated. Jn. 3:16 - Son

5. But it is a deity issue which is perpetuated - Jn. 1:18 only begotten God - theos. Col. 2:9

6. Accordingly, the virgin conception by-passes the image of Adam to produce a sinless human body. 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Jn. 3:5

7. And at the moment of physical birth, the 2nd member of the Godhead (the logos) joined Himself with the soul life and the human spirit and "entered" the body and Jesus became a living soul (nephesh chAyAh); Heb. 10:5

8. The term "own son" is used at Romans 8:3, 32 to indicate uniqueness.  cf. Acts 20:28

9. The old testament type or teaching aid concerning the only begotten Son is found in Isaac. Hebrews 11:17-19; Gen. 22:1-19.

10. The term "first born of all creation" in reference to Christ, refers to resurrection and not to the incarnation. Col. 1:15, 18; Rom. 8:29; Rev. 1:5; 21:4

F. Thus, that which was conceived and born by the Holy Spirit was to be called The Son of God. Luke 1.30-35

2. The title Son of God indicates deity equality in a Messianic context. Jn. 5:18; 10:30-36

3. From a prophetic standpoint, the title is used in the Old Testament to speak of Messiah's career.
Ps. 2:7-12 ; Is. 9:6

4. The personal relationship is acknowledged by the Father. Mt. 3.17; 17.5; Luke 9.35

5. The title is acknowledged by Satan. Mt. 4.1-7

6. The title is acknowledged by demons. Mt. 8.29; Mk. 3.11-12; Lk. 4.41

7. The baptist's testimony: John 1.34

8. Nathaniel's testimony: John 1.49

9. The title is acknowledged by the disciples: Mt. 14.33

10. Peter's acknowledgment: Mt. 16.16

11. Martha's acknowledgment: Jn. 11.27

12. Christ's claim to the title: Jn. 11.4

A. The use of the term "My Father:" Jn. 10.30

B. He makes no denial or correction when others acknowledge Him.

C. Christ's statement at the trials: Mt. 27.63-64; Mk. 14.61-64

13. The intimacy of the relationship: Mt. 11.27;

A. Jn. 7.29; 17.25; 3.35

B. "Own Son" - Romans 8.3, 32

14. The centurion's testimony: Mt. 27.54

15. Testimony of the resurrection: Romans 1.4

16. Paul's testimony: Acts 9.20; 2 Cor. 1.19; Gal. 4.4

17. The scripture teaches that there will be a return to the pre-incarnate status of the Godhead. 1 Cor. 15.28

A. John 1:1 cf 17:5

B. In the book of the Revelation, the title Son of God occurs only 1 time (v. 2:18).

The issue is KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS and the Alpha and Omega.


CHRIST: The Only Begotten Son

1. monogenes - only 5 times for Christ: Jn. 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 Jn. 4:9

A. genes-from gennao - to generate via procreation

men - beget; women - bear

B. monos - only one of a kind or only time of occurrence.

C. Son - male offspring via procreation

2. Adam is the son of God via the act of creation. Luke 3:38; Gen. 2:7

A. Adam's offspring are sons of Adam, not of God

(They are still considered offspring of God, but not sons-Acts 17:28-29)

B. Sons ideally, is a term of direct descent. Jn. 1:12-13

C. Adam's sons are born after his own image with a sin nature. Gen. 5:3; Ps. 51:5

3. Angels are also sons of God via creation: Job 1:6; 38:7

A. Angels have no physical offspring except the one time violation of God's created design. Gen. 6:1-4; Jude 6-7; 1 Pet. 3:8-20; 2 Pet. 2:4

B. This has not been permitted to happen again as is suggested by the extreme punishment assigned by God. Jude 6

C. The designed "sexless" status of all angels is indicated by Jesus at Mt. 22:30.

D. However, Satan does have spiritual offspring. Gen. 3:15

1. John 8:44 2. 1 John 3:8-10 3. Mt. 13:38

4. Therefore, no one can be called a genes of God wherein God reproduces himself except the one who is so designated in scripture.

5. monogenes indicates that God has reproduced himself one time in the person of Jesus Christ.

A. but this was not a generating of a "new god," but a transfer of essence from the spiritual realm into the physical.

B. The logos is his official title before the incarnation - Jn. 1:1

C. Then the word became flesh -Jn. 1:14 (ginomai-aorist middle indicative) and is called the only begotten of the Father.

D. So it is not only a relationship issue which is perpetuated Jn. 3.16 - Son

E. But it is a deity issue which is perpetuated - Jn. 1:18 only begotten God - theos. Col. 2:9

F. Accordingly, the virgin conception bypasses the image of Adam to produce a sinless human body. 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Jn. 3:5

G. And at the moment of physical birth, the 2nd member of the Godhead (the logos) joined itself with the soul life & the human spirit and entered the body and Jesus became a living soul-nephesh chAyAh. Heb. 10:5

H. The term, "own son" is used at Rom. 8:3, 32 to indicate uniqueness.

6. The old testament type or teaching aid concerning the only begotten Son is found in Isaac. Heb. 11:17-19; Gen. 22:1-19

7. The term firstborn of all creation in reference to Christ, refers to resurrection and not his incarnation. Col. 1:15,18; Romans 8:29; Rv. 1:5; 31:4

See CHRIST: The Beginning of the Creation of God


CHRIST: Lordship Deity

1. Greek word, kurios: indicates the status and function of divine sovereignty in Christ's humanity.

2. Demonstrated by functional judgment: John 5:22-23; Mat. 28:18; 2 Tim. 4:8

3. Confirmation of His Lordship through resurrection: Romans 14:6-9; Philip. 2:9-11

4. Designated as Lord by the decree of God the Father: Acts 2:36

5. His Lordship deity is recognized at Heb. 1:10 by the status of "creator."

6. His Lordship deity is recognized at Heb. 1:11-12 by his absolute existence.

7. Peter's acknowledgment of His sovereignty: Acts 10:36

8. Christ's Lordship deity related to salvation: Rom. 10:9-15

9. Through all this, is established the principle of "equal honor."
John 5:23, "in order that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father."

10. Equal-honor status must be viewed from the perspective of Isaiah 42:8, "I will not give my glory to another."
And Isaiah 45:21-25, "Is it not I, Yahweh (the LORD) And there is no other God besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none except me.

11. Equal-honor status is "restoration" to the place of pre-incarnate glory. John 17:5

12. That pre-incarnate glory is indicated as equal "essence" at Philip 2:6

13. both the Father and the Son receive the praise indicated by the technical construction,
"the Glory." Rom. 11:36; 2 Pet. 3:18

14. Both are given equal-honor at Rev. 5:13



1. The ROCK is a title to reflect the dependability of the Godhead on behalf of those who trust in Him. Deut. 32:3-4

A. V. 3: The Character (name) of The LORD (Yahweh)

B. V. 4: Ascribe greatness to our God (elohim)

C. V. 4: a God of faithfulness (el)

2. This revelation of God as THE ROCK is actually the "pre-incarnate" Messiah as the revealed member of the Godhead. 1 Cor. 10:4

3. He is the ROCK of physical deliverance for Israel: Deut. 32:5-18; Genesis 49:24

4. He is the ROCK of salvation for the nation of Israel:

A. Is. 28:16;

B. But when He is rejected by the nation, the ROCK becomes a stone of judgment for them and the blessing is extended to others. Psalm 118:22; Mat. 21:42-44

5. Thus He becomes the foundation for the church: Eph.2:20-22; 1Cor. 3:11

6. He is the ROCK of experiential provision for believers:

A. Isaiah 26:3-4

B. Psalm 144:1-4

C. 1 Cor. 10:1-4

7. He is the ROCK of stumbling and judgment for the unbeliever. Isaiah 8:14; 1 Pet. 2:8

8. He is a ROCK of judgment at His 2nd coming. Daniel 2:34-35

9. The symbolism of the rock carries a double focus in the Old test.

A. Exodus 17:1-7 salvation provision

B. Numbers 20:1-13 experiential provision based on salvation

10. Christ is The Rock upon which the church is built. Matthew 16:13-20


CHRIST: Shepherd and guardian

I. FIRST let's recognize that Christ is seen as The Shepherd in FOUR WAYS.
(1) The RULER shepherd over the nation of Israel:  Mat. 2:6 with Micah 5:2-4.
For out of Bethlehem “shall come forth a Ruler, who will shepherd my people Israel.”
As such He will deliver the nation of Israel through His second coming and the Day-of-the-Lord judgments. Isaiah 40:11; Micah 7:14-20.
And He will re-gather the believing ones of Israel and shepherd them in His millennial kingdom. Ezek. 34:11-15.

(2) The GOOD shepherd who provides salvation for those who will trust in Him.
John 10:11-16.
In this capacity, He is called The Great Shepherd of the sheep at Hebrews 13:20-21.
At 1 Peter 2:25, God the Father is called “the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls”
in a salvation context.

(3) The CHIEF shepherd who gives rewards to those who trust in Him for the righteous good deeds done while they lived here on earth. 1 Peter 5:4

(4) The ETERNAL shepherd who provides blessings for the resurrected saints for all eternity. Revelation 7:17; 21:4.

II. SECOND let's focus on Christ's ministry to believers while living here on earth.
1. 1 Peter 2:25 refers to God the Father based on the word, "return." But Jesus is also our shepherd and protector.

2. Jesus is the good shepherd. John 10:11, "kalos" = honorable and efficient.

3. The guide to spiritual truth and spiritual life reality. Jn. 10:1-6; Mat. 11:28-30

4. As the spiritual guide, He also becomes the door to status and function in God's kingdom of light. John 10:7-10

5. As the spiritual shepherd, He provides what the sheep need for spiritual sustenance.
John 10:11-18, 27-30

A. v. 11, 17-18: He lays down His life for the sheep.

1. For = huper = substitution AND benefit.
2. The death of the shepherd does not help the sheep unless that death secures the deliverance of the sheep.

B. v. 16: He provides oneness and unity for the sheep.
CF. 1 Cor. 12:13 and Eph. 2:13-19

C. Eternal life provision: v. 28a

D. Eternal life security: v. 28b and Rom. 8:38-39, "in Christ."

E. Intercession: Rom. 8:34; 1 John 2:1-2 with v. 1:7; High priesthood activity.

F. Spiritual food: John 14:23; 15:10-11, 14-15

6. All these provisions are based on Christ's resurrection. Heb. 13:20; Jn. 10:17-18; 1 Cor. 15:12-20.

7. Prophecy of Christ's shepherd status: Zech. 13:7-8; Mat. 26:31


CHRIST: Sinlessness of Jesus

1. 1 Peter 2:22

A. Who committed no sin: aorist active indicative of poieō + negative = who did not commit sin (hamartia).

B. Neither was there found: aorist passive indicative of heuriskō to indicate that never at any time was deceit (dolos) expressed by Him either mentally or verbally.

C. So this indicates no overt sin or mental attitude sin from a summary viewpoint of Christ's life. It is quoted from Isaiah 53:9.

2. Christ is designated in scripture as the Holy and Righteous One. Acts 3:14

A. Holy is hagios: in itself the word does not mean "sinless," but indicates sinlessness of nature through the unique status acquired through the virgin birth.
Set apart as unique and special.

B. Righteous is diakaios and indicates the perfect reflection of divine righteousness in everything He did. He always did what was pleasing to the Father, John 8:29.

C. Isaiah 53:11, "The Righteous One, My Servant"

D. 1 John 2:1, 29, "Jesus Christ the Righteous."

3. The issue of sinful by nature:

A. Adam was not created sinful: Gen. 1:31, "very good."
B. But all of Adam's progeny are born sinful.
Romans 5:12 with Psalm 51:5 and Genesis 8:21 indicate that all are born with a sin nature.

C. In order to be an effective savior-priest, it was necessary for the Messiah to be born as true humanity. Heb. 2:17

D. But He must not have Adam's curse, the sin nature. The human race is "helpless" (Rom. 5:5) and a sinner cannot free another sinner.

E. Therefore, the virgin birth was necessary to bypass the curse from Adam so that Jesus was born free of a sin nature. Luke 1:35, "Holy Offspring."

4. Then throughout His entire life, Christ lived in total righteousness without any personal sin.

A. 2 Cor. 5:21, "He who did not know sin." (not at any time)
ginOskO - aorist active participle + negative (not) + sin (hamartia)

B. 1 John 3:5, "and sin is not in Him."

C. Heb. 4:15, "without sin."

D. John 8:29, Always did what was pleasing to the Father.

E. 1 Tim. 3:16, "declared righteous by the Spirit."

5. So this qualified Him as savior. Heb. 5:8-9; 7:25-28; 1 Tim. 2:5-6

6. And as our helper and intercessor. Heb. 2:18; Rom. 8:34; Heb. 9:24

7. And our example: 1 Pet. 2:21; 4:1; Philip. 2:6


CHRIST: Sustainment by the Holy Spirit

1. Definition: The ministry of the Holy Spirit to the humanity of Christ for teaching, guiding and empowering during His earthly ministry.

2. Prophesied over 700 years before by Isaiah: Isaiah 11:2-3; 42:1-4; 61:1-2

3. The Holy Spirit at the birth of Christ: Mat. 1:18-21; Luke 1:35

4. The Holy Spirit at the baptism of Jesus. Mat. 3:16-17; Mk. 1:9-10

5. The Holy Spirit guided Him to and through the temptation in the wilderness.
Mat. 4:1; Mk. 1:12; Luke 4:1

6. All during His life and ministry He depended entirely on the Holy Spirit and Divine viewpoint in His soul for stability and fulfillment of the plan of the Father for His life.

A. Growth: Luke 2:40, 52;
B. Application: Hebrews 5:7-8
C. Isaiah 11:2, The 7 Spirits of God

7. Jesus Christ was sustained by the Holy Spirit only in His "humanity."

A. In His deity, He is co-equal with both the Father and the Spirit.

B. As the perfect "God-man," Jesus Christ revealed the character of the Godhead to the human race. Heb. 1:3; Jn. 1:14, 18; 14:8-10; Col. 2:9

C. As perfect humanity, he relied on the ministry of the Spirit and was led and guided by the Spirit.

D. He did not depend upon His divine attributes to perform His ministry. Phil. 2:6-8.

E. He subordinated His deity attributes to the will of the Father. He did not use the characteristics of His deity independent from the Father's plan.

F. He did not give up His divine essence, but he set aside the independent us of that essence during the incarnation. He walked as a man and as true humanity.

1. He was never commanded to be filled with the Spirit.
2. He was always filled with the Spirit because the Spirit was given to Him without measure. John 3:34.

8. The Holy Spirit empowered the humanity of Christ during His ministry in His teaching and performing of miracles. Luke 4:14, 15, 18; Mat. 12:18, 28

9. Jesus Christ gave himself for crucifixion in the power of the Spirit. Heb. 9:14

10. The ministry of the Spirit as well as of the Father, ceased when Jesus was bearing the sins of the world on the cross. Ps. 22:1-3; Mat. 27:46

11. The Holy Spirit had a part in the resurrection of Jesus. Rom. 8:11; Rom. 1:4

12. The sustaining ministry of the Spirit to Christ is perpetuated in the church age as He glorifies Christ in and through the life of the believer whom he fills. John 16:14; Gal. 5:16-25; 2 Cor. 3:18


CHRIST: Temptation - 40 days

1. The testing of Jesus was designed to confirm His dedication to the Father's plan.

A. From Satan's perspective, it was temptation. That is, the intent to bring Him down.

B. From the Father's perspective, it was testing. That is, the intent to showcase the truth content in His soul.

2. The temptation activity took place over a 40 day period. Luke 4:1-2a

A. v. 2a - being tempted: peiradzō = present passive participle
B. v. 13 - every temptation: pas peirasmos
C. Heb. 4:15, tempted in all things, yet without sin. (peiradzō)

3. At the end of that 40 day period, the culmination of Satan's attack is expressed in three major categories of independence from God. Mat. 4:3-10

A. Mat. 4:3, Dedication to divine policy.

1. In this case it is whether Christ will maintain His part in the Father's plan for the incarnation.

2. To be specific, adherence to the attitude and status of "kenōsis."
Philip. 2:7-8, kenoō, aorist active indicative, "He emptied Himself."

3. The attack comes in the area of necessity details as Jesus is extremely hungry.

4. But He remains faithful to policy and does not "independently" express His deity omnipotence by making bread from stone.

5. And what He uses to maintain His faithfulness is the knowledge of divine truth in His soul. v. 4, "It is written."

6. Our lesson: Nothing is more important than following the policy God had designed for His people. John 14:23-24

7. And details (normal activities in human life) will be the greatest area of attack.

A. Demas: 2 Tim. 4:10
B. Martha: Luke 10:38-42
C. Teachers: 2 Cor. 2:17
D. The love of money: 1 Tim. 6:9-10
E. Marriage details: 1 Cor. 7:25-35
F. Distraction from growth: Luke 8:14

8. So Jesus recognizes and applies the principle that truth must always have priority over details.

9. We learn from Him that even in the greatest detail crisis, the issue is not the crisis, but spiritual truth.

10. And as we see how Jesus deals with the temptations, we learn once again the fantastic value in having Truth in our soul - as a sword ready to pierce every expression of human viewpoint. 2 Cor. 10:3-6

B. The 2nd major category of independence from God: Living by SIGHT rather than by FAITH.

1. God has made promises to His people based on His perfect character and plan. Ps. 138:2; 119:138

2. Therefore He is faithful to fulfill all that He has promised.

a. In general: Heb. 10:23; 1 Pet. 4:19; Rom. 8:32
b. Specific: Over 7000 promises for us to claim here on earth.

3. Our experience of the abundant life (peace, joy and confidence) depends on claiming that faithfulness and applying His promises in every area of life. Rom. 15:4, 13

a. CF Abraham: Rom. 4:20-21
b. CF David: 1 Sam. 17:37, 45-47
c. CF Joshua and Caleb: Num. 13:25-33; 14:1-9

4. The issue then is to live by FAITH not by SIGHT.

a. Salvation faith: Lk. 16:27-31 cf. Jn. 20:29
b. Christian life faith: 2 Cor. 5:7; Rom. 14:23b

5. The Lord Jesus in His humanity also operated on the principle of faith/trust in the character and plan of the Father. Heb. 5:7; 1 Pet. 2:23

6. And so, at the beginning of His ministry, he faced a major temptation to test the Father by trying to see "visible" evidence of His plan instead of taking it by FAITH.

a. Mat. 4:6, the temptation: God has promised you special protection. Let's see if He really means it.

b. A serious subtlety in this test is the fact that the tempter actually quotes scripture even though out of context.

c. Mat. 4:7, the answer: IT IS WRITTEN, "you shall not put God to the test."

d. quoted from Deut. 6:16 which refers to the incident at Ex. 17:1-7

e. The people doubted the promises of God, even in the face of fantastic food provision, Ex. 16:11-15.

f. They wanted to see some more physical evidence of His promise to go with them and take care of them. EX. 17:7

g. This is called, putting God to the test, and is living by SIGHT rather than by FAITH.

h. The seriousness of the issue is discussed at Heb. 3:7-15

i. Jesus did not fail this test because He had total trust in every aspect of the Father's plan and was content with whatever God chose to do as a visible manifestation of His character and plan.

7. And so, as always, Jesus provides for us the perfect example for relating to God's character and plan.

a. The issue is faith: Heb. 11:1-3
b. the way to please God is faith: Heb. 11:6
c. And the believer must always be prepared to compare scripture with scripture so that he not be deceived by mis-quotes and mis-applications.

C. The third major category of independence from God: failure to worship Him.
Ie, acknowledge and serve Him.

1. The temptation: Mat. 4:8-9a with Lk. 4:6; Make something attractive in order to get you to make some gesture of independence from God.

a. In Jesus' case, the temptation is to possess now what God has promised to give at a later time.

b. thus, to take things into your own hands because you don't think God is doing a good enough job.

c. Application to us: This also caters to power lust.

d. v. 8, "all the kingdoms of the world"
political authority, wealth and power.

e. v. 9a, "I will give them to you."

1. They are in Satan's hands to give.
Lk. 4:6 with 1 Jn. 5:19; Jn. 12:31

2. But they have been promised to Christ in Messianic prophecy at Ps. 2:8

2. The Purpose: v. 9b, get Jesus to reject the sovereign authority of the Father and elevate someone else to the place of Godhood.

a. If you will: 3rd class condition "if" recognizes the volition of Jesus in His humanity.

b. fall down: overt expression of dedication to the plan of Satan.

c. And worship me: proskuneō, aorist active subjunctive. (to kiss face to face)
To place maximum value on someone
To recognize him as the authority in the universe
To recognize him as the source of all things.

3. The answer: Mat. 4:10

a. Be gone: hupagō, aorist active imperative - get out of here!

b. Satan: Jesus recognizes the source of this temptation and addresses him personally.

c. For: gar - indicates the basis for resisting the devil. 1 Pet. 5:9 with James 4:7

d. It is written: graphō, perfect passive indicative
e. You shall worship the Lord your God: Deut. 6:13
f. And serve Him only: amplifies worship.
Service as at Rom. 14:7-8

4. This 40 day period was only an initial temptation.

A. Satan left at the end but only until a "later" time as seen at Luke 4:13.
B. Satan continued to tempt Christ all throughout His earthly ministry but it was through the agency of the religious leaders of Israel rather than any more personal confrontations.

5. At the end of the 40 day period of testing and temptation, angels ministered to Jesus' physical needs. Mat. 4:11


CHRISTIAN: Why Become a Christian

1. Because of the quality of life of the non-Christian:

A. Isaiah 57.21 - no peace to the wicked

The world provides an inadequate peace - John 14.27b

B. Soul frustration: Ecclesiastes 1.8 - wearisome

1. Ecclesiastes 1.2 - all is vanity

2. Matthew 11.26 -- weary and under a burden (frantic search for happiness)

C. Spiritual blindness: John 12.35; 1 John 2.11 (no direction in life)

D. Slavery to fear: Hebrews 2.15

E. Slavery to the old sin nature: Ephesians 2.3

1. Genesis 8.21 ------ evil

2. Ecclesiastes 9.3 --- insanities

3. Jeremiah 17.9 ------ deceptive and sick


2. Because of the indictment of Divine justice:

A. Hebrews 9.27 -- appointment with judgment

B. Romans 3.23 --- all have sinned and come short of God's glory.

C. Romans 6.23 --- The wages of sin is death (perpetual separation from God)

D. Romans 5.6-10 -The condition of the human race (H.U.S.E.)

1. V. 6 -- Mankind is ungodly: attitude of creature independence which will not give to God the worship He demands.

2. V. 8 -- Mankind is a group of sinners: they express their independence from God by violating His righteous standards.

3. V.10 --Mankind is the enemy of God: ungodly and sinners = enmity which God cannot tolerate.

4. V. 6 -- Mankind is helpless: we can do nothing in and of ourselves to resolve the problem.

E. John 3.36 -- The wrath of God

F. 2 Thessalonians 1.6-10 - eternal ruin away from the presence of the Lord.

G. The lake of fire: Revelation 20.15; 14.9-11 --- forever and ever

3. Because there is only one way of salvation: John 14.6

A. Acts 4.12 - there is no other name

B. John 1.12-13 - the new birth

1. Not from heredity

2. Not from the will of the flesh (personal attempts from the old sin nature)

3. Not from the will of man (collective attempts through religion and philosophy)

C. Acts 13.39 - Not according to any system of human law .

D. Isaiah 45.20-21: idolatry fails

E. Not from any system of human works: Ephesians 2.8-9; Titus 3.5


4. Because of the reality of total deliverance from eternal judgment: Romans 8.1

"There is therefore now no judgment to those who are in Christ Jesus."


5. Because of the potential for true blessing: John 10.10 - a new and better quality of life

A. Matthew 11.29 - rest

B. John 15.10-11 - joy

C. John 16.1 ----- personal stability and courage

D. John 16.33 ---- peace



1. Christianity is the medium by which God promotes His viewpoint and policy in a world of darkness.

A. Darkness entered the universe when Lucifer, through his pride, expressed independence from God and His policies. (sin)

B. It entered the human race when Lucifer (now Satan) got Adam and IshAh (Eve) to act independently from God in the garden.

C. Now God's plan concerning darkness (which can be defined as any expression of independence from Divine viewpoint and policy) is to allow it to run its natural course by which it will progressively (in time) and ultimately (at the end of time) be exposed as totally non-beneficial and inadequate in providing any true fulfillment in life.

2. The origin of Christianity is recorded in Gen. 3.15-21 as the promise of a savior who will provide a solution to the sin problem and defeat the forces and influence of darkness.

3. Thus, throughout history, man is the focal point for promoting light in the world through the Messianic promise.

4. But we need to recognize that not only is Christianity designed to promote light over darkness in general, but it is also designed to provide for mankind a solution to the effects of darkness which have corrupted and distorted every factor in man's life.

5. First then, True Christianity provides the solution to the spiritual depravity of the human race which is described by the four words found in Rom. 5.6-10. (H.U.S.E.) Helpless, ungodly, sinners & enemies.

A. The 4-fold problem mentioned here is offset by the 4-fold provision described at 1 Cor.1.30. wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption.

B. Utilization of the provision is through personal trust in the person and work of Christ as savior.

Ephesians 2.8-9; John 1.12-13

6. Secondly, it provides the solution to all the frustration and misery produced by man's sin nature which is the channel for independence from God in each and every person.

A. Genesis 8.21

B. Ec. 9.3

C. Jer. 17.9

D. Gal. 5.19-21

7. Thus, the abundant life of peace, joy and inner stability is provided by Jesus. Jn. 10.9-10

8. The proper approach to God and life is found in Proverbs 3.5-6 - His viewpoint, not ours.

9. The issue of spiritual growth: 1 Peter 1.2; 2 Peter 3.18

A. We have seen the basic purpose of Christianity --

1. To promote light over darkness

2. Broken down into 2 areas

a. Deliverance from the kingdom of darkness

b. Deliverance from the influence of darkness.

B. Since the beginning of Christianity at Gen. 3.15-21, God has provided the solution to the distorted influence of the nature of sin (OSN).

1. That solution is knowledge and application of Divine viewpoint in every area of life.

2. The OSN tires to relate to self, others and God on its own terms.

a. Gen. 3.7 - operation fig leaves

b. Prov. 14.12; 16.2; 12.15 - his own way

c. Ec. 7.29 - many devices

3. But God's solution provides what darkness viewpoint cannot.

a. Coats of skin: Gen. 3.21, represents Divine provision in the spiritual area as well.

b. Proverbs 3.5-6

c. Proverbs 8.32-36

d. Proverbs 1.24-33

C. So the issue is for us to get God's viewpoint in the soul where it can benefit us and promote light in the world. Proverbs 2.1-15

1. Wisdom's invitation: Prov. 9.1-6

2. The house in the soul: Prov. 24.3-4

3. Edification in the New Testament: oikodomeō - to build a house, or structure.

a. In general: Acts 20.32; 1 Peter 2.5; Col. 2.7; Jude v.20

b. Ministering to one another: Romans 14.15

c. The local church: 1 Cor. 14.12, 26

D. Recognition of maturity and immaturity: Heb. 5.10-14

1. 3 levels of growth: 1 Jn. 2.12-14

2. Mt. 13.18-23

E. The progress of growth: 2 Peter 1.5-8 to build and reflect Christ's character in your life.

1. Two factors that promote peace in the soul: Jn. 14.27; 16.33; Phil. 4.6-7

a. Self control: patience, control of details of life (material things and pleasures) moral stability. Humility factors - Mt. 11.29

b. Endurance: spiritual stability that promotes light in the pressures of the conflict between darkness and light. (Rom. 5.3; James 1.3)

2. Then godliness: dedication and consistency in following the policies of God for worship and service. (eusebeia -- good worship) 1 Tim. 4.6-7

3. Two factors that promote joy in the soul: (Ps. 1.1-2; Jn. 13.17; 15.10-11)

a. brotherly love: faithfulness and dedication directed toward the family of God. total objectivity and optimism toward other believers. 1 Pet. 1.22

b. The Love: agapā - the ultimate in reflecting the character of Christ. Everything in your life is directed toward seeking the benefit of others.

4. V. 8 -This is a progressive, on-going process which builds little by little the character qualities demonstrated by Jesus while He was here on earth, and results in consistent productivity which is evidenced by the 3 factors of the abundant life.

F. Romans 15.13 - peace and joy through believing (knowing and using God's word) will result in inner stability (hope, confidence)


CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: Orientation via 1 John one

1. We must understand about the person of Christ. v. 1 - Rom. 1.3-4

A. Deity: Jn. 1.1-3; 8.58; Heb. 1.3

B. Humanity: Jn. 1.14; Phil. 2.5-8


2. We must understand about his work. V. 2 -

A. Romans 5.6-10

B. 2 Cor. 5.21

3. We must understand the basis for fellowship with one another and with God. V. 3

V. 3 - Knowledge and application of bible truth: Hebrews 3.13-15

4. We must understand the issue of the true inner joy of the abundant life. V. 4

A. The abundant life is mentioned by Jesus at John 10.10-"life and abundance."

B. Peace: Jn. 14.27

C. Joy: Jn. 15.11

D. Inner stability: Jn 16.1

5. We must understand the absolute nature of God's character. V. 5

"God is light and in Him there is not darkness at all."

A. Two opposing viewpoints exist in the universe. Is. 55.8-9

B. 10 absolute attributes: Eternal, Sovereign, Love, Justice, Righteousness, all-power, all-present, all-knowing, Truth and Unchanging.


6. We must understand our volitional responsibility to follow God's policies. v 6-7

A. 1 Jn. 5.3: "And this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments, and his commandments (policies) are not burdensome."

B. 1 Jn. 2.6: "The one who says he abides in him, ought himself to walk in the same manner as he walked."

7. We must understand the presence of the old sin nature. (OSN) V. 8

A. Gen. 8.21: "The inclination of man's heart is evil from his youth."

B. Ec. 9.3: "The hearts of the sons of men are full of evil, and insanity is in their hearts throughout their lives."

C. Psalm 51.5: "I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin my mother conceived me."

D. Romans 7.14-23: "--But the sin which indwells me. For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is in my flesh."

8. We must understand the mechanics for restoration to fellowship. V. 9

Confession of sin to God the Father.

A. Proverbs 28.13

B. Psalm 51.2-4

C. Psalm 32.5

9. We must understand the real potential for personal sin. V. 10

A. I Jn. 2.1: "---But if any one does sin."

B. Gal. 5.17 with 1 Peter 2.11

C. James 1.14-15

D. Psalm 119.11


CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: the Alien Mentality

1. The unbeliever is a citizen and child of Satan's kingdom.

A. John 8:44a, 38, 41
B. According to the course of this world. Eph. 2:2
C. Dominion of Satan. Acts 26:18
D. Dominion of Darkness. Col. 1:13

2. The believer has been transferred out and into God's kingdom of light. Jn. 12:46

A. Col. 1:13; Acts 26:18
B. Ephesians 5:8
C. Not of this world. John 17:16
D. Citizenship in heaven. Phil. 3:20

3. Therefore, we have an alien status in this world.

A. Sojourner: parepidāmos - 1 Pet. 1:1

1. Emphasis on visitor or stranger: one who is just passing through
2. But moving in a specific direction - toward a specific goal: ambassadorship.

B. Aliens: paroikos - citizenship in a foreign country: 1 Pet. 2:11
C. Old Testament anticipation: Heb. 11:13-16
D. So we must ask the question, "Why are we here?"
For pleasure or for business?

4. Our purpose for being here is to represent divine truth to the world. Jn. 17:18; 20:21

A. Mat. 28:18-20
B. Acts 1:8
C. 2 Cor. 5:20
D. 1 Peter 2:9

5. Because of our alien status we live in an antagonistic environment.

A. Spiritual conflict:

1. Satan and the forces of darkness.

a. Eph. 65:12; 2 Cor. 10:3-5
b. Doctrines of demons: 1 Tim. 4:1

2. Humans under darkness delusion.

a. Darkness hates the light: Jn. 3:19-20
b. The world hates believers: Jn. 15:18-20; 17:14

B. Sin nature conflict: 1 Pet. 2:11
From "dead IN sin" (Eph. 2:1) to "dead TO sin" (Rom. 6:11-13).

6. Furthermore, since we have a natural physical affinity to this world, there will be natural physical distractions to our ambassadorship purpose through the details of life.

A. 1 Cor. 7:29-35
B. 1 Tim. 6:9-10

7. Therefore, to endure the antagonism and distractions, we must cultivate the alien mentality.

A. 1 Pet. 1:17, conduct yourselves in reverence during the time of your sojourn (paroikia).
B. Col. 3:1-3, focus your mind on your heavenly home - the things above.

8. The alien mentality requires maximum utilization of time in order to fulfill our spiritual purpose.

A. Eph. 5:16, redeem the time because the days are evil
B. Ps. 90:12, to build wisdom in the soul, "that we may gain a heart of wisdom."
C. 1 Cor. 7:35, benefit, S.O.P. for Christian way of life; undistracted devotion.

9. Our ultimate trust must not be in the country and resources or our visitation.

A. 1 Cor. 7:31, the form of this world
B. Mat. 6:19, treasures on earth
C. 1 Tim. 6:17, uncertainty of riches
D. 2 Cor. 4:17-18 with v. 5:7, "the things which are seen" and "walk by sight."

10. Our trust must be in the country of our citizenship.

A. Mat. 6:20, treasures in heaven
B. 1 Tim. 6:17, but in God

11. Accordingly, human resources are only temporary to sustain physical life.

A. Minimum requirements: food, beverage and covering - 1 Tim. 6:8
B. We are to be content with minimum requirements because our purpose on earth is spiritual not physical.

12. Everything else beyond minimum requirements is surplus and is provided for enjoyment above and beyond spiritual service. 1 Tim. 6:17b, enjoyment = apolausis

13. But in order to keep balance and control in details of life, the alien mentality pursues character growth in self-control. 2 Peter 1:6

14. And thus we fulfill our purpose for remaining on earth by our consistent testimony.

A. Eph. 5:20
B. 1 Pet. 3:15-16
C. 1 Pet. 2:11-12

15. See topic: Ambassadorship


CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: Family provisions

1. The principle of family provisions: Rom. 8:32

A. Adult son privileges: Eph. 1:3-6
B. Based on Divine wealth resources. Philip. 4:19
C. Called greater grace at James 4:6

2. Freedom from bondage: Gal. 5:1
But continuance in freedom is conditional. Jn. 8:32; Gal. 5:13-18

3. Family fellowship: 1 John 1:3

4. Family communication with the Father: prayer - 1 John 5:14-15; Mat. 21:22

5. Access to family wisdom through the Holy Spirit.
Col. 2:3; John 14:26; 16:13; 1 Cor. 2:9-12

6. Ability to use that family provision. 1 Thes. 2:13
Heb. 4:12; 2 Tim. 3:16-17

7. Thus, family character building. Gal. 5:22-23; 2 Pet. 1:3-8

8. Potential for temporal family security via faith rest. Heb. 4:9; 1 Pet. 1:17

9. Access to the family arsenal for fighting the enemy. Eph. 6:10-17; 2 Cor. 10:3-4
Protection: 1 Cor. 10:13; 2 Thes. 3:3; 1 Pet. 5:8-9

10. Family provision in the necessary details of life. Mt. 6:25-34 (food, beverage, shelter)

11. Function in one of the 7 family professions through a spiritual gift.
1 Cor. 12:7; Rom. 12:3; 1 Pet. 4:10-11

12. Physical protection through the family personal body guards: guardian angels
Heb. 1:14; Mat. 18:10; Ps. 91:11-13

13. The blessing of family discipline when we stray. Heb. 12:5-11


CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: God's character applied to life

1. Because God is sovereign and IN CONTROL I can be at peace.

A. God will not let anything happen to me except what is best for His plan. Job 1:21; 2:10
B. Romans 8:28
C. God is the one making the decisions: not man; not angels 1 Chronicles 29:11-13

2. Because God is eternal; because He transcends all of time, His promises transcend time and give substance to the reality of my salvation.

A. Because He is eternal life, He can give life to others. 1 John 1:1-2; 5:11-12
B. His grace provision is everlasting. Psalm 118:29

3. Because God is RIGHTEOUS, I can count on consistency for how to relate to Him. Psalm 15

4. Because God is JUSTICE, I know I will be treated fairly - even in spite of my weaknesses. Isaiah 30:18; 1 John 1:9

5. Because God is LOVE, I know that His plan is the best thing for me. Romans 12:2

A. Motivation for salvation: Romans 5:8; John 3:16
B. I can know that He cares for me. 1 Peter 5:7
C. Divine discipline: Hebrews 12:6

6. Because God is OMNIPOTENT, I know that He is ABLE to meet my needs. Nothing is too difficult for God - Jeremiah 32:17

A. The enforcer of His sovereignty: Isaiah 43:13
B. Protection of salvation: John 10:27-30; 1 Peter 1:3-5
C. Physical protection: Daniel 3:17-18; Heb. 13:6

7. Because God is OMNISCIENT, I know that he understands.

A. Hebrews 4:12-16; Psalm 139:1-6
B. I know that He can SEE my needs. Mat. 6:32; Psalm 139:23-24
C. Strong support: 2 Chronicles 16:9

8. Because God is OMNIPRESENT, I know I will not be misplaced. Psalm 139:7-12

9. Because God is TRUTH, I know that can rely on His word.
God who cannot lie Titus 1:2; Heb. 6:18

10. Because God is UNCHANGING, I know that He will be faithful.

A. Salvation faithfulness: 1 Cor. 1:9; 1 Thes. 5:24
B. Faithful for assistance: 1 Cor. 10:13; 2 Thes. 3:3
C. Faithful for fellowship forgiveness: 1 John 1:9

CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE: God's plan for the believer on earth

1. Why salvation in the first place.

A. The need:

1. Spiritual depravity: Eph. 2.1-3; Rom. 3.23

2. Divine justice: Romans 6.23a; 2 Thes. 1.8-9

B. God's desire: 1 Tim. 2.4; 2 Peter 3.9

C. Man's inadequacy: Romans 5.6; John 1.13

D. Showcasing God:

1. Righteousness: Rom. 3.26

2. Love: Rom. 5.8

3. Grace: Rom. 5.20-21; Eph. 1.3-6; 2.4-7

4. His glory: Rom. 9.22-23; Eph. 1.11-14

5. His wisdom: Eph. 3.8-10

6. The incarnation: Phil. 2.6-11

2. Life and abundance: John 10.10

A. Life: eternal life status - Jn. 3.16

B. Abundance: Eternal life experience - Gal. 6.8- blessings in time.

1. Rest: Mt. 11.29; Heb. 4.9-11

2. peace: Jn. 14.27; 16.33

3. joy: John 15.10-11

4. Stability: Jn. 16.1

3. To glorify God:

A. By the universal church: Eph. 3.21

B. By the individual believer: 1 Cor. 6.19-20; 10.31

C. By bearing fruit: Jn. 15.8

D. Through character reflection: Phil. 1.11

E. Good works: Mt. 5.16; Eph. 2.10

F. Grace living: 2 Cor. 4.15

G. Personal testimony: 1 Pet. 2.12

H. spiritual gift: 1 Pet. 4.10-11

I. grace giving: 2 Cor. 8.19

J. local church unity: Rom. 15.6

4. God's will: thelāma

A. 1 Thes. 4.3 - sanctification as at V. 4-6 - moral issues

B. 1 Thes. 5.18 - grace attitude in all things

C. 1 Peter 2.15 - agathopoieo - doing good for testimonial impact - context of submission to moral authority - v. 13-14

5. Called for ---

A. 1 Cor. 7.15 - peace

B. Gal. 5.13 - to freedom

C. Eph. 4.1 - for a special vocation

D. Eph. 4.4 - in confidence

E. 1 Thes. 4.7 - for moral sanctification

F. 2 Thes. 2.14 - to gain (accomplish) the glory of Christ

G. 1 Peter 2.21 - to follow in his steps - character imitation

H. 1 Peter 3.9 - to inherit experiential blessing.

6. That which is acceptable to God:

A. 1 Tim. 2.1-3 - prayer for all men

B. 1 Tim. 5.4 - children to care for older parents

C. Romans 14.17-18 - serving in the Holy Spirit: euarestos - acceptable and well-pleasing

D. Hebrews 13.15-16 - worship sacrifices - praise, doing good and sharing

7. All the specific commands in the New Testament.


CHRISTIAN WAY OF LIFE : The Divine Value System and Way of Life

HEBREW -- derek: used to indicate a way of life or life style.

1. The way of Yahweh: Prov. 10.29; Jer. 5.4-6; Ezek. 18.24-32; 33.17-20; Psalm 27.11; 37.34; 44.18; 67.2; 86.11

2. The way: Isaiah 30.12; Mal. 2.8

3. The good way: Jer. 6.16

4. The way of your testimonies: Psalm 119.14

5. The way of your precepts: Psalm 119.27

6. The way of your commandments: Psalm 119.32

7. The way of your statutes: Psalm 119.33

8. The way of wisdom: Proverbs 4.11

9. The way of understanding: Proverbs 9.6

10. The way of being wise: Proverbs 21.16

11. The way of righteousness: Proverbs 12.28; 16.31

12. The way of faithfulness: Psalm 119.30

13. The way of eternity: Psalm 139.24


Christian Welfare

1. First we must recognize the effects of the antagonistic environment. Mt. 26:11; Deut. 15:11
The poor are always with you.

A. The physical environment: loss of health, possessions or provider.
B. Oppression from others (via their sin natures) which deprives people of possessions and property.

2. But giving to the poor is not automatically a good deed pleasing to God.
John 12:1-8; Mk. 6:1-2; Mt. 26:6-13

3. True Christianity has 2 basic character expressions. James 1:27

A. Spiritual purity: keeping oneself unspotted from the world (which includes moral purity).

B. Moral generosity: remember the widows and orphans.

4. Christian love involves material generosity directed to fellow "believers." Rom. 12:13

A. James 2:15-16
B. 1 John 3:17-18

5. Early Christian teaching concerning the poor. Gal. 2:10
Jerusalem counsel: remember the poor.

6. Early church welfare provisions: Acts 2:41-47; 4:32-35

A. Not mandated: just their way of dealing with it at the time.
B. Later, the "communal" arrangement is not found in the church.

7. Moral responsibility of welfare recipients in the church. 2 Thes. 3:7-12; 1 Tim. 5:3-16

8. Occasion for welfare extended to other churches. Acts 11:27-30

9. General welfare provisions in the nation of Israel.

A. The third tithe: Deut. 14:28-29
B. Gleaning:

1. Definition: The custom of the poor and strangers gathering the leftovers of a crop after the reapers finished.

2. This was a divine command for national life. Lev. 19:9-10
Deut. 23:24; 24:19-22

3. The command was to leave some grain behind when reaping so that the strangers, widows, fatherless, poor - could gather it.

4. If a field was reaped, but a section was forgotten, then it was to remain for the poor.

5. This dealt with - harvesting grains, olives, grapes.

6. Purpose: was 3-fold according to Deut. 24

a. Personal blessing from God - v. 19
b. Commemoration of grace: remembering the deliverance from Egypt - v. 22
c. To provide for those who could not hire themselves out - but were able to work for themselves.

C. Year of remission: Deut. 15:1-11
D. Year of Jubilee: Lev. 25:8-17 (23-34)
E. No interest charged: Lev. 25:35-37
F. Indentured service should be viewed as employment. Lev. 25:39-41 cf. v. 44-46



1. The function of the local church is to provide the environment for believers to grow in the faith and to worship God.

A. The mandate for growth: 2 Peter 3.18; 1 Peter 2.2

B. The agent of growth: the teaching gift. Eph. 4.11; Heb. 13.7

C. Mutual encouragement: Heb. 3.13

D. The mandate for public assembly worship: Heb. 10.25

2. Worship activity in the local church:

A. Communion service: Acts 20.7; 1 Cor. 11.17-34

B. Prayer: Col. 3.16; Eph. 5.19

C. Singing: Col. 3.16; Eph. 5.19

D. Teaching: 1 Timothy 4.13

3. Service activity in the local church:

A. Evangelism extended outside the church: Acts 2.46-47; 4.31b, 33; 5.12; 21.8

B. Material assistance within the church:

1. Communal environment: Acts 2.44-45 (this is by choice, and no where in scripture is it a commanded pattern. Acts 4.32, 34-37 (cf. 1 Tim. 6.17)

2. The need for deacons: diakonos - Acts 6.1-7 (describes function, not gift)

3. 2 Thes. 3.7-12 - possibility of abuses within a communal environment.

4. Widows: 1 Tim. 5.3-16 (not a pure communal environment)

4. The structure of the local church.

A. Philippians 1.1 - 3 groups

1. Saints: the congregation as a whole. All the believers of the church

2. Overseers: One who looks over the flock to guide and protect.

3. Deacons: those who handle all the little operational details of the church.

B. Saints: Called flock at Acts 20.28 (sheep communicates a need)

1. The need is protection: be on guard - prosechō - present active imperative.

2. The need is shepherding: shepherd; poimainō- present active infinitive. (protection, feeding, comfort)

3. The need is example: 1 Peter 5.3 -ginomai - present middle participle: becoming an example to the flock - tupos = example.

4. The need is teaching: Heb. 13.7 - who spoke the word of God to you

5. The goal is production: Ephesians 4.11-12 - the work of service

C. Overseers:

1. The Greek word group:

a. episkopos: describes the function of the person in a leadership position without reference to his spiritual gift. (5 times)

b. episkopā: describes the formal office of that function. 1 Tim. 3.1

c. episkopeō: the verb describes the action - 1 Peter 5.2 - present active participle.

2. The overseer is equated with elder in Acts 20.17, 28.

a. presbyteries: lit: old man

b. but the word speaks of position and authority within the local church without emphasis on age.

3. Two types of elder: 1 Tim. 5.17 -

a. administrative elder: rules - proistāmi - Perfect active participle

b. teaching elder: work hard - kopiaō - present active participle (in word [logos)] and teaching [didaskalia] ) LOCAL

4. There is no indication that women can serve as elders.

a. the word itself is masculine with no amplification as with deacons.

b. Every mention of elders always views them as men.

D. The deacons: diakonos - means one who serves. In the context of the local church, it is the one who handles the details of operation.

1. Acts 6.1-7 distinguishes between serving and teaching.

2. 1 Peter 4.10-11 indicates 2 categories of spiritual gift (teaching and serving) In this case, the serving gifts refer to both administrative and labor in the operational details of the local church.

3. Women can be deacons: 1 Tim. 3.8-13 gives qualifications for deacons and it is best to take V. 11 as referring to women who serve as deacons rather than to the wives of deacons.

5. Spiritual gifts in the local church: 1 Cor. 12.4-11

A. 8 points of orientation

1. The gifts must be defined according to scripture. 1 Cor. 12.4-6

2. The gifts must be listed according to scripture. 1 Cor. 12.8-10, 28; Rom. 12.6-8

3. the gifts are distributed individually by the H.S. not universally. 12.28-31

4. The gifts are for the mutual benefit and edification of the church. v.12.7; 14.12

5. Some gifts had a very restrictive purpose: 1 Cor. 14.20-22

6. Some gifts were temporary:

a. The apostle: only 12

b. 1 Cor. 13.8

7. Some gifts were not functional in women: 1 Cor. 14.34; 1 Tim. 2.11-12

8. Each believer has only one permanent gift: 1 Peter 4.10

B. There were two categories of temporary gifts: ( 9 gifts - 1 Cor. 12.8-10, 28)

1. Revelation gifts: Recipient of Divine revelation with reference to the church age. These gifts provided doctrinal information and sometimes guidance information. apostle, prophet, word of knowledge, word of wisdom, (tongues - both )

2. Sign gifts: Recipient of Divine ability for the performance of miracles and signs which were designed to validate the new testament message. miracles, healings, faith, discerning of spirits

C. Function of the temporary gifts in the local assembly: 1 Cor. 14.12-40

D. There are two categories of permanent gifts: 1 Peter 4.10-11 (7)

1. Communication: he who teaches (pastor) teacher, evangelist, exhorter, counselor (showing mercy)

2. Service: this involves both administration and labor in handling the operational details of the church. (administration, helps, financial)

E. Function of the permanent gifts in the local church is summarized at Rom. 12.6-8 plus the principles of 1 Cor. 14.26-35

6. Communicator's function and responsibility:

A. Acts 20.28-35

B. 2 Tim. 2.24-26; 4.1-5

C. Titus 1.7-11; 2.1

D. 1 Peter 5.1-4

E. 1 Tim. 4.11-16

F. 1 Tim. 5.22

7. Response to the communicator

A. 1 Peter 5.5a

B. Gal. 6.6

C. 1 Thes. 5.12-13

D. 1 Tim. 5.17-21

E. Hebrews 13.13, 17

8. The existence of several local assemblies in the same geographical area.

A. Romans 16.5, 14, 15

B. 1 Cor. 16.15, 19

C. Col. 4.15

D. Philemon v. 2

9. Establishing a local church

A. Titus 1.5 with 1 Peter 5.17

B. Training of teachers: 2 Tim. 2.2

C. Qualifications: 1 Tim. 3.1-13; Titus 1.5-8

D. Deacons: 1 Tim. 3.8-13

10. The local church traced through acts: SEE TOPIC

11. Miscellaneous issues:

A. Disputes: 1 Cor. 6.1-8

B. The hair issue: 1 Cor. 11.2-16

C. The communion service: 1 Cor. 11.17-34

D. Finances in the church: 2 Cor. 11.8-9; 1 Tim. 5.17-18; 1 Cor. 9.6-18 with

2 Cor. 2.17 and 1 Thes. 2.5; Apply 2 Cor. 8.12; 9.7

E. The issue of partiality: James 2.1-10

F. The presbytery: 1 Tim. 4.14 - presbuterion

G. Women as teachers: 1 Tim. 2.11-12; Titus 2.3-5

H. James 5.13-20 - erring believer under discipline


LOCAL CHURCH: Traced through Acts

1. First local church established in Jerusalem. Acts 1.12-15; 2.41-47

A. Started from the gathering of disciples after Christ's ascension.

B. Members added through evangelistic activity.

1. V. 2.37-41 (pattern of evangelism - v.22-41)

2. V. 4.4 via 3.11-26

C. V. 2.42 - daily church activity

1. teaching; didachā

2. fellowship: koinōnia

3. breaking bread service: communion via the Lord's table

4. prayers: proseuchā

D. Communal environment by choice not by command. V. 44-45

1. as the development of the church progressed, the communal environment was discontinued.

2. But the practice of material assistance continued to those who had need.

E. V. 46-47 - daily activity

1. One mind: homothumadon

2. in the temple: evangelistic activity

3. house to house: worship activity (breaking bread - v. 42)

4. praising God: aineō

5. testimony to outsiders: having grace (favor)

6. Those added were the result of evangelism

2. Acts 4.23-37

A. Prayer meeting: v. 23-30

B. V. 31a - physical demonstration of Divine power

C. V. 31b, 33 - spirituality and evangelistic success

D. V. 32, 34-37 - continued communal environment

E. V. 36 - first mention of spiritual gift of exhortation

3. Acts 5.1-11 - First discipline administered in the local church

4. Acts 5.12-16 - evangelistic meeting at Solomon's porch

A. Interrupted by imprisonment - v. 17-18

B. Continued the next morning: v. 19-21, 29-32

5. Acts 5.42 - every day

A. in the temple: evangelistic activity

B. House to house: edification - didaskō

6. Acts 6.1-7 - progress in administration

A. Need for management in the food provision area. v. 1-2

B. Not to be done by the communicators. V. 3 - not desirable - ouk arestos (pleasing, acceptable)

C. 7 men prepared:

1. Consistent testimony: martureō - present passive participle

2. wisdom content: sophia

3. consistent character via the filling of the Holy Spirit:

4. V. 5 - full of faith - faith rest function

D. V. 6 - laying on of hands: symbolic transfer of authority

E. V. 7 - continued evangelistic impact

F. Two of these deacons had the gift of evangelism. Stephen and Philip

7. Local church established at Antioch: Acts 11.19-26

8. Acts 11.27-30 - one local church sending financial aide to another.

9. Acts 13.1-3 - local church at Antioch functioning with many communication gifts, sends out missionaries.

10. Local churches established in all the cities where they ministered. Acts 14.21-23

11. Reported back to home church at Antioch. Acts 14.26-27

12. The Jerusalem council is an apostolic convention. Only an apostle can set policy for all the churches. Acts 15.1-29

13. Local church at Troas - communion service on Sunday. Acts 20.6-7

14. Elders in local church (churches) at Ephesus attend a pastor's conference held by Paul.

15. Communicator's responsibility in the local church. Acts 20.28-35

16. Acts 21.4 - prophets in the local church warning Paul

17. Acts 21.8 - local church at Caesarea has a local evangelist.



1 Timothy 3:15

This refers to each individual local church assembly of believers under the guidance and direction of the "leadership" spiritual gifts (pastor/teacher and administration) which functions as the custodian of the truth revealed by God through the apostles and prophets and which through them was preserved in written form and circulated throughout the world.

It is the "local church" which functions as a base of operation for the preservation and promotion of God's written revelation. And it is the local church as well as each individual believer that functions as a receptacle for the truth from which God will showcase His manifold wisdom to the Satanic forces organized against them.

It is the "local church" that is in view in this passage. Not the "universal" "invisible" church;

And not an organized "church" body which seeks to claim jurisdiction over all of Christianity.


1. The universal church is comprised of all church age believers.
    Eph.1:22-23, 5:25-27; Col.1:17-18.
   A. All those who trusted in Christ prior to the day of Pentecost in
       30 AD and who were alive at that  time."
   B. All those who trusted in Christ from the day of Pentecost
       forward until the rapture.

2. The universal church was yet in the future during Christ's ministry, although clearly in the mind and plan of God from eternity past (Eph. 1:4). Mat. 16:18, "On this Rock (Christ) I will build my church." (The future tense of oikodomeō).

3. Synonyms for the universal Church.
   A. All church age believers are placed into union with Christ and become (1) personally a new creation, and (2) collectively a member of a new body or entity  in Christ.
 1 Cor 15:45-47; 2 Cor 5:17; Gal 6:15; Eph. 2:15 (one new man).
   B. The universal church is the body of Christ and Christ is the head of the body. Christ is the controller, the one in authority. The body has many parts or "members" which refers to the various spiritual gifts and ministries of individual believers.
Eph 1:22-23, 2:16, 4:4-5, 5:23; 1 Cor 12; Col 1:17-18,24, 2:19.
   C. Christ is the shepherd and the church is His sheep. Jn 10; Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 5:4. This analogy connotes the security and great blessings that come to us as members of His body. This analogy appropriately sees us like sheep. Sheep have no sense of direction, cannot fend for themselves, are helpless, and therefore need the guidance, sustenance, and protection of the shepherd. Practically, the believer-sheep must be guided, guarded and fed by the under-shepherd, the pastor of the local church.
   D. Church age believers are branches IN the vine. Jn 15:1-6. Jesus Christ is the vine; we are the branches. This analogy teaches union with Christ; positional truth and/or positional sanctification.
In this passage we see both position and experience; relationship and fellowship. And we see both failure and success in growth and service.
See John 15:1-11

 E. Christ is the chief cornerstone, and the stones of the building are believers as members of the universal church. This was first taught by Christ in Mt 16:16-18 when He told Peter, “You are blessed, Simon, Son of Jonas. And on this rock [PETRA, giant rock, Christ) I will build my Church.. Therefore, your name is now PETRAS [part or chip of a rock].” This reference to Christ as the chief cornerstone is found in Eph 2:20; 1 Pet 2:4-8.
F. 1 Peter 2:4-8 actually gives us FOUR terms to describe the universal church.
1. A chosen race: A SPIRITUAL race based on being CHOSEN or ELECTED into the body of Christ.
2. A royal priesthood: This is still viewing church age believers as ONE body, but the focus
with all four of these terms is on SERVICE while here on earth.
The "royalty" factor is because Christ is the KING and we are IN UNION with the king.
We are a new spiritual entity viewed as ROYALTY within the entire universe.
3. A holy nation: Again, this is a new SPIRITUAL nation replacing the evangelistic function
of the nation of Israel, as both Jew and Gentile are joined together to spread the gospel.
4. A people for (God's) possession: verse 10, "the people of God." Again, chosen by God
to replace the physical nation of Israel as God's ambassadors on the earth.

G. The universal church is seen as the "bride of Christ." 2 Cor 11:2; Eph 5:25-27; Rev 19:6-8.
This is viewed from both a present positional focus as well as a future focus at the wedding feast of the Lamb after Christ's second coming.




The 7 churches of the Revelation should be viewed as having a double application. I personally do not hold to the theory that the 7 churches also represent 7 different though consecutive phases of church history from John to the end time. But that theory really is not pertinent in our present study.

The first and primary application is to 7 specific churches in Asia, which through divine selection, demonstrate what the general condition of the church will be in that generation that sees the arrival of the Day of the LORD.

There are general and specific issues dealt with in each letter, but all of them occur within the context of the possible return of Jesus in their generation. While the rapture itself is not imminent, the events which will precipitate the 70th week of Daniel can take place at any time in the history of the church. Once these events occur and the 70th week begins, it is that generation of the church which will see the Lord's return. Accordingly, the second application is to that generation of the church which will actually witness those end time events.

In either case the 7 churches represent 7 different conditions within the body of Christ as evidenced by 7 general types of believer who will be living during the final days of the church.
Thus, we see believers who claim allegiance to Christian values but who have compromised in one or more of the various areas represented by the 7 churches.

The reason 7 churches were chosen to illustrate the general condition of the church is because 7 is sufficient (and those specifically) to completely illustrate what that condition of the church will be in the days preceding the Day of the LORD.

For both applications, it is imperative to recognize that the general context for viewing these churches is in expectation of the return of the Lord and the beginning of the Day of the LORD judgments.

Revelation 1:7

Behold, He is coming with clouds,
and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him;
and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him.
Even so. Amen.

It is really only within that context that all the information written to those 7 churches can be sensibly correlated.
In each of the 7 letters, there is the expectation of Christ's return at the Day of the LORD. There is scattered here and there, in those letters, specific information that can only apply to a church that is present on the earth prior to the Day of the LORD.
However, any generation after John can find fulfillment in the 7 churches, for at any time during the history of the church, the events could take place which would precipitate the 70th week.
Furthermore, there is certainly a common benefit to the church throughout its entire history, for many of the principles found in the letters have universal application. But the specific application must be kept within the context of Rev. 1:7.

Therefore, the letters to the 7 churches should be studied with the idea that everything that is dealt with will be an issue within the church community that exists at the end times. The general application therefore, will see a church that will encounter the oppressive reign of the beast (Rev. 2:10), and one, who through faithfulness, will be guarded from the hour of temptation that will come on the whole world (Rev. 3:10; Luke 21:34-36).



1. Circumcision was instituted to establish the Abrahamic covenant. Gen. 17:10-14

A. It was a sign that God had established His covenant with Abraham and with Abe's descendants, v. 11.

B. The covenant was God's part and the circumcision was Abe's part to show that he had accepted God's covenant.

C. The covenant was unconditional. Abe's acceptance of it was for his temporal blessing as he participated in God's plan for him.

D. Since the covenant was unconditional, it functioned as the guarantee of divine favor for the progeny of Abraham.

E. Abe's act of circumcision was done in obedience and as an indication of his previous "saving faith." Rom. 4:11

2. The significance to the nation of Israel.

A. First, it was a sign that they were of God's chosen people (race and nation).
B. Second, it was a sign of the faithfulness of parents who performed the ritual on their sons.
C. Third, it was the perpetuation of faith in the Messianic promise which would come through the seed of Abraham and the tribe of Judah. As such, no one was allowed to partake of the passover unless they were circumcised. Ex. 12:48

D. Fourth, it was thus, a reminder to them of their responsibility for the communication of spiritual and moral truth as it had been committed to the nation.

E. Fifth, it was SYMBOLIC of sinlessness and the absence of the sin nature (the flesh) in the begetting of the Messiah.

3. The ritual of circumcision has no significance for the church. 1 Cor. 7:18-19; Gal. 6:15; 5:6

4. But early in the church age, it became a rallying point for legalism. Acts 15:1, 5
The answer is at Rom. 4:6-13

5. The term circumcision and/or uncircumcision has many spiritual uses.

A. It was used to describe believers in the Old Testament who were saved but who had rejected spiritual truth and God's design for the believer's way of life.
Jer. 9:25-26 (uncircumcised of heart); Ezek. 44:7; Acts 7:51

B. It was also used to symbolize a positive attitude toward the things of God.
Deut. 10:16; Jer. 4:4

C. It was used to describe the spiritual status of the Jew under the new covenant. Deut. 30:6

6. In the New Testament, it is used to describe salvation. (not the ritual, but the term)
Rom. 2:28-29; Philip. 3:3 (It is not what's on the outside, but what is on the inside that counts).

7. It is used to describe positional union with Christ and the "positional" removal of sin from the life of the one who trusts in Christ. Col. 2:11-12



1. The key to comfort is an occupation with the character and plan of God, and the resultant assurance in the soul.

2. Comfort is closely related to relaxation. The beginning of comfort and relaxation is assurance of one's salvation. Rom. 5:1; 2 Thes. 2:16; 1 Thes. 4:18; 5:11

3. This comfort concerning our salvation should then be a source of comfort in every situation of life based on the promise of Rom. 8:32.

4. The source of comfort for the believer.

A. The Father: 2 Cor. 1:3-4; 7:6; Rom. 15:5
B. The Son: 1 John 2:1
C. The Holy Spirit: John 14:16-17; 14:26; 15:26; 16:7, 13-14
D. The Word: Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 14:3
E. Other believers: Heb. 3:13; 10:24-25; Rom. 1:12; Philip. 1:7; 2:19; 2 Cor. 1:4, 7; 7:4, 7; Philemon 7.
F. True beneficent love (Grk. = agapā) is the basis for comfort and encouragement being expressed between believers. Col. 2:2-3

5. Comfort is to be a major part of the worship service in the church. 1 Cor. 14:3, 31

6. There is the possibility of someone refusing to receive comfort and therefore not receive the benefit. Mat. 2:18; Heb. 3:7-8; Ps. 77:2; Gen. 37:35

7. Comfort must be given on a grace basis (no strings attached). 2 Cor. 2:7

8. Comfort and encouragement are needed for motivation in various areas of living the Christian way of life. Acts 11:23; 14:22; 1 Thes. 2:11-12; 4:1, 10; 5:14; Eph. 4:1; Rom. 12:1; Titus 2:6; Jude 3.

9. Comfort from God is a sure provision: We can count on it in accordance with our need for comfort. 2 Cor. 1:5

10. The bible does speak of an eternal comfort when the believer is with the Lord. Luke 16:25; Rev. 21:4



1. Content accuracy: Rom. 12:6, "agreement with The Faith." (1 Thes. 2:3; 1 Tim. 3:3)

2. Viewpoint accuracy: 1 Cor. 2:1-5; 1 Thes. 2:5-6; 1 Tim. 3:4; Job 32:21-22

3. No compromise: Acts 4:20; 5:29; Rom. 16:17-18; Gal. 2:5; Philip. 3:17-19; Col. 2:8; 2 Thes. 3:14-15; 1 Tim. 6:3-5; 1 Tim. 6:20-21; Titus 1:9; 1 Pet. 5:12; Jude 3

4. Four qualifications: Gal. 6:1

A. "Brethren" = must be a believer.
B. "Spiritual" = filled with the Spirit.
C. "mend" = having knowledge ability to meet the needs of the person.
D. "gentleness" = right attitude and motivation.

5. Pursue peace and edification. Rom. 14:19

6. Always minister grace. Eph. 4:29; Col. 4:6

7. Status inequality is no deterrent. (Luke to Paul)

8. Age inequality is no deterrent: Elihu to Job - Job 32:8-10, 17-22

9. In the fact of opposition. Ezek. 3:8-9; Is. 54:17

10. In the face of negative response from others. Ezek. 3:10-11; 2:5; 3:27

11. Orientation to swine and dogs. mat. 7:6, There are some things you should not teach to certain people.

12. Don't back off from subject controversies. 1 Tim. 4:3-6 with v. 7


COMMUNION: The Design of the ritual

1. Designed for believers not for unbelievers.
It is a ritual of RELATIONSHIP with God.

2. Designed for blessing not for cursing. 1 Cor. 10:16
It is a ritual of JOY not of sorrow.

3. Designed for believers "filled with the Spirit" (in fellowship), not carnal believers. 1 Cor. 11:27-31
It is a ritual of FELLOWSHIP.

4. Designed to emphasize spiritual separation not ecumenicism. 1 Cor. 10:21
It is a ritual of SANCTIFICATION

5. Designed for unity, not division; for fellowship, not for ostracism.

A. Positional: 1 Cor. 10:17
B. Fellowship: 1 Cor. 11:20-22, 33

It is a ritual of MUTUAL participation.

6. Designed for worship, not to quench hunger and thirst. 1 Cor. 11:20-22, 34
It is a ritual of WORSHIP.

7. Designed for remembrance not regret. 1 Cor. 11:24-25
It is a ritual of REMEMBRANCE.

8. Designed for commemoration not apology or shame. 1 Cor. 11:26
It is a ritual of HONOR.

9. Designed for anticipation not fear. 1 Cor. 11:26 (1 Cor. 1:7 and 1 Thes. 4:13-18)
It is a ritual of EXPECTATION.

10. Designed to glorify God and not man. 1 Cor. 10:31; 11:26
It is a ritual of PRAISE.



What restores fellowship with God?

A. The issue is always a humility attitude toward the character and policy of God. PS. 51.17

1. God's absolute character: 1 Jn. 1.5

2. The character of sin: 1 Jn. 3.4; 5.17a

3. Recognition of sin: Ps. 51.3

4. The direction of sin: Ps. 51.4

5. God's provision: The work of Messiah - Is. 53.11-12; 1 Jn. 1.7

6. God's policy: Ps. 32.5

B. Confession as per 1 Jn. 1.9 - homologeo means to acknowledge, to agree.

A genuine confession is an agreement with God concerning that sin.

An "acknowledgement" that - -

1. It is indeed sin.

2. It was paid for by Christ's spiritual death on the cross.

3. It is unacceptable to God.

4. It has broken fellowship between the believer and God.

C. Proverbs 28.13 - confess and forsake

D. Provision for recovery: Jer. 3.1-15

E. Comments on confession:

1. If you give an excuse for your sin, you distort grace and make a pseudo confession. Sin has already been judged so excuses are not necessary.

2. Principle of responsibility: You sin because you want to. You sin because self-consciousness (ego) responds to the sin nature (OSN) seeking satisfaction through various comfort zones. (desires of the body and mind - Eph. 2.3).

3. When you refuse to confess, you ignore the Father's judgment on that sin. Confession acknowledges the judgment.

4. Once you acknowledge the Father's judgment on that sin He applies the work of Christ to it as per 1 Jn. 1.7.

5. As you gain a greater understanding of God's attitude toward sin in general and the true nature of his judgment on it, you will gain a greater hatred toward it and a greater ability to resist it.

Principle of Ps. 119.11 and Pr. 16.6

6. Specific sins are dealt with by gaining specific biblical knowledge about the true nature and negative effects of that sin and then claiming the Divine resources to resist it.

7. Another grace factor in confession is to accept the fact that it is only directed to God the Father.

8. Feeling sorry for your sin is not adequate. Sorrow does not constitute a genuine confession or acknowledgement of sin.

F. Comments on Mt. 6.14-15: Failure to forgive others when they have "sinned" against you is a mental attitude of bitterness, anger and implacability. It indicates that you are out of fellowship with God and until you "confess" and "forsake" those sinful attitudes, the Father is unable to forgive you and restore you to fellowship with Himself.

G. There are 2 types of sin which are removed when the believer confesses sin biblically.

1. Known sins: represented by the word "sins" at 1 Jn. 1.9.

2. Unknown sins: by the phrase, "all unrighteousness."

3. Forgiveness refers to the removal of all guilt in association with the known sins. Thus, it will never be brought up again.

4. Cleansing refers to removal of the fellowship-deterring factors present through acceptance of darkness standards. Thus, all unrighteousness and unknown sins.

a. Comments on Psalm 19.12

b. Comments on Psalm 90.8

5. Confession will not remove scar tissue or consequences from sin.

a. Scar tissue refers to the "imprints" which sin makes on the mind, even though the sin is gone.

b. Scar tissue can only be removed by learning truth.

c. Consequences in the natural category usually remain in force although God is "able" to remove them.

d. Consequences in the applied category as Divine discipline, may or may not be removed based on Divine wisdom.

H. Principle of a pseudo-confession: This are things NOT to say.

1. Wrong motives and mechanics: 1 Sam. 15.24-31; Acts 8.14-24

2. I promise not to do it again --

3. I will do something for you if you forgive me ---

4. I'm the worse sinner - everything I do is wrong ---

5. Please forgive me for all my sins ---

6. I'm sorry I sinned + rededication or penance, etc.

7. I wouldn't have sinned if ---

8. I didn't know that was sin ---

I. What confession will not do:

1. not remove scar tissue

2. Not remove discipline. (although it may prevent it)

3. Not the basis for an emotional experience

4. Not restore what was lost while you were out of fellowship

5. Not give a license to sin. Any attempt to use it as such violates Prov. 28.13.

J. Synonyms for confession:

1. Judge self: 1 Cor. 11.31

2. Awake and arise from spiritual neutralization (dead) - Eph. 5.14

K. Confession is using the advocacy of Christ based on 1 Jn. 2.1-2

L. Summary of confession at Psalm 32.1-11

Return to topic FELLOWSHIP


CONFLICTING COMMANDS: God's instructions vs. man's

1. Orientation:

A. Every command In the Word of God is based on a principle of absolute Divine righteousness.
B. The righteousness of God is revealed in the Word as His norms and standards for thinking and behavior.
C. The decrees of God have established authority levels designed to test and prove the supremacy of God and resolve the angelic conflict.

D. God has established 2 authority levels which are necessary in the preservation of the human race so the conflict can be resolved.

1. Spiritual authority
2. Moral authority

E. Spiritual authority defines the rights and power of God's sovereignty over his creatures.

1. Sp. authority begins with the Godhead as the Father delegates authority to the Son and Spirit.
2. From the Godhead, authority is delegated directly to the body of Divine revelation - the Scripture.

3. Then indirectly to each believer priest based on ambassadorship and stewardship.

F. Moral authority defines and regulates interrelationships between members of the human race.

1. It too, however, has its origin within the Godhead, as He alone knows what is best for the creature.

2. Moral authority exists In 4 areas.

a. Volition
b. Marriage
c. Family
d. Nation

2. God has placed these two levels of authority side by side in the human race.

A. But because of freewill and the sin nature, there is the possibility of conflict.
B. The moral authorities may not recognize or honor spiritual laws.
C. The moral authorities may not recognize or honor moral laws.
D. In other words, some authority may tell you to do something that violates spiritual law or God's moral law.

3. God's word establishes a priority between these 2 levels.

A. Spiritual authority is absolute as it represents the very essence of the light system. I Jn. 1:5 - God is light and in Him is no darkness.

B. Moral authority is delegated to Imperfect creatures and therefore deals with principle.
C. floral authority can express Itself In an immoral way and yet it still remains the authority.

D. When man rejects sp. authority, he rejects the absolutes of Divine standards. This becomes religion and has no authority over man.

E. When moral authority attempts to restrict sp. authority, the sp. authority has priority and the believer is not bound by the moral authority in that area.

4. Spiritual authority always has priority over moral authority. Acts 5:29 We must obey God rather than man.

A. The two are not In conflict.
B. But when an imperfect moral authority sets itself up in opposition to sp. laws, the sp. laws take precedent.
C.If a corrupt moral authority enslaves through corrupt policies, the believer Is still under the principle of that authority unless the oppression hinders observance of sp. laws.

D. Spiritual laws are Divine mandates for worship and service.
E. Even though a corrupt moral authority advocates Immorality and indeed, practices immorality, the believer Is still obligated to the principle of authority.

F. The believer combats immorality and apostasy within society through his witness of life and message. Not violence nor anything that obstructs the freedom of others. 2 Cor. 10:3-6

G. Our Christian mandate is not to force others to be Christian, or even moral, but to teach Truth and provide light influence in every area of society. Eph. 5:6-21

5. The Christian obligation to authority: Eph. 5.22-6.9

A. Marriage: 5:22-33; 1 Pet. 3:1-7
B. Children: 6:1-3
C. Parents: 6:4
D. servants: 6:5-5; 1 Pet. 2:18
E. masters: 6:9
F. Nation: 1 Pet. 2:13-14; Rom. 13:1-7

6. Principle of moral authority delegated to human institutions.

A. John 19:11
B. Rom. 13:1-2
C. Dan. 4:17
D. Jer. 27:5-5
E. Ex. 20:12- parents
F. Gen. 3:16 marriage

7. The potential for conflict:

A. Mat. 10:34-39
B. Psalm 2:2-3

8. How to handle the crisis. Daniel 6:1-23

A. The conflict develops - v.1-5

1. v.1-3 - operation jealousy
2. v.4 - operation criticism - failed (1 Pet. 4:12-16)
3. v.5 - The believers vulnerability (Achilles heel) is his dedication to spiritual laws.

B. Operation conspiracy - v.6-9

1. The. plan: create a conflict between moral authority and Daniel's perception of spiritual authority.

a. The king is a dupe in this situation.
b. The political rulers are the instigators.

2. Daniel recognized the existence of moral authority.
He was part of that moral authority.

3. The conspiracy against him recognized the importance of spiritual authority in his life.

4. They used moral authority to try to overrule sp. authority.
They made a law against prayer.

C. Daniel, knowing the new law, followed spiritual law as was his custom. v.10

1. The conflict was resolved in Daniel's soul by yielding to the higher authority.
2. Moral authority: No one shall make a petition to any god or man besides the King (Darius) for 30 days.

3. Spiritual authority: worship and service. Summarized at Deut. 6:1-15

D. Daniel handled the crisis by applying Bible Truth through the operation of Faith rest in the plan and viewpoint of God. Principle of I Pet. 3:13-17

E. The conspirators invade privacy, v. 11

1. Dan was not trying to keep anything secret -
2. But It was still home worship done In privacy.

F. Operation hook: v. 2 - Darius doesn't have any Idea that his best political aide is in violation of the new law.

G. They "reel in" Darius by exposing Daniel. v.13
H. Darius tries to prevent them from taking Daniel. v.14
I. But he is bound by his own law. v.15-17
J. Comforts Daniel with what he hopes is true although he himself is an unbeliever. v. 16b
K. Practices his religious ritual in attempt to appease God. v.15
L. In the morning, Darius hopes for the impossible. v.19-20
M. Daniel's attitude: v.21-23

v.21 - 0 King, live forever: title of respect because Dan still recognizes the moral authority he is under.

v.22 - Explanation

1. innocent before Him - God
2. Committed no crime against Darius

v.23 - Narrative summary

1. no harm because he trusted in his God. Principle of 1 Pet.4:19
2. No harm Is only one option In God's plan.
3. Sometimes He allows harm - even death. Heb. 11:32-39
4. But always His plan is promoted and the believer benefits from the perspective of sp. value. I Pet. 3:13; Rom. 5:35-37

9. Dan. 3:1-18

10. Acts 5:17-42

11. Acts 4:1-31

12. Application to social action

A. These passages cannot be used to advocate social demonstrations or physical actions for support of any cause.

B. The issue was worship and service. Not politics or morality.
C. Our responsibility as Christians is to represent Truth by our witness in life and word.
D. That means we speak when we have a chance, but we do not force ourselves upon anyone either emotionally or physically.

E. The present laws of this nation permit us the right of peaceful assembly, and of speaking out on any issue without fear of government reprisal.

F. And if the laws forbad us to proclaim our message of Bible Truth, then we would be obligated to the higher sp. law
that commands us to proclaim.

G. But never are we authorized to use violence, oppression, coercion or invasion of privacy to make that proclamation.



1. The conscience is located in the heart: Hebrews 10:22

2. The Greek word is suneidāsis: It occurs 30 times.

A. sun = with

B. eidāsis comes from oida: to know

C. To know "with" something: an aid, a guide, a standard

D. The conscience thus is the element of the heart that contains the norms and standards of life.

3. The quality of the norms and standards in the conscience depends on the type of knowledge that has been learned and absorbed by the mind (the understanding).
Titus 1:15; 1 Tim. 1:5, 19; Heb. 10:22

4. There is a natural moral framework which God has placed into the conscience of every person.
As a child grows and develops into an adult, he will either amplify that framework he has by nature, or he will replace it with opposite standards. Rom. 2:14; Ec. 7:29
The attack on this "natural" moral framework comes from the sin nature, the world and Satan.

5. There is also a natural inclination in man to recognize the existence of God. This is triggered by the glories of the natural creation as it points to the existence and power of God. Rom. 1:18-23.

6. Accordingly there are two spheres of standards that must be developed and cultivated.
Acts 24:16; 2 Pet. 1:3

A. Spiritual standards: life with God (godliness)
B. Human standards: morality and culture (life)

7. There are two sources for human (morality) standards.

A. The word of God: Mosaic law, Proverbs, New Testament (Rom. 13:5)
B. Human documents and traditions that reflect that "natural" morality framework that's in the soul.

8. But there is only one source for spiritual standards and that is divine revelation.

A. Pre-canon (96 AD): prophets of God and specific revelation.
B. post-canon (after 96 AD): the 66 books of the bible.

9. Conscience is related to our initial salvation relationship with God through the "pledge" or "promise" that is made when one trusts in Christ as savior. It is the conscience accepting "new" standards and in humility relating to God on His terms. 1 Peter 3:21

10. The term "weak conscience" is used to indicate a soul that is deficient of divine viewpoint standards. The strong believer is one with divine viewpoint standards in the soul, who allows those standards to govern every area of his life. As such, he is commissioned under the law of love to help the weaker believer recover from error and pursue the growth process.
1 Cor. 8:7, 10, 12; 10:25-29; Gal. 6:1; Rom. 15:1-3

11. Divine viewpoint standards in the conscience are the basis for stability and victory under the pressures of suffering and persecution. 1 Peter 2:19; 3:16

12. The conscience can become defiled through hardness of heart and the darkness process.
Titus 1:15; Rom. 1:21; Eph. 4:17-19

13. The local church communicator of the word, as he teaches truth, presents himself (and his doctrinal content) to the conscience of the hearers and in the sight of God.
2 Cor. 4:2; 5:11
He teaches the truth without compromise making the issues of divine viewpoint perfectly clear. This means, honesty, objectivity, no deception, no falsification, no favoritism and no laziness in preparation.



1. DEFINITION: Covetousness is a materialistic search for happiness which desires to possess and monopolize whatever is pleasing to the soul.

A. In Eph. 4.19 it is called greediness: Here it is total occupation with the details of life as the attitude which energizes the philosophy of sensuality -"If it feels good, do it." Ec. 2.10; 8.15

B. But since this attitude can never be satisfied, it is best rendered as a frantic search for happiness. Ec. 2.11; 5.10

C. And thus it is a way of life that acts out all uncleanness. Eph. 4.19-pas akatharsia

D. It is amplified at I Timothy 6.10 by the phrase - "the love of money is the root of all the evils." philarguria + pas kakos (plural).

E. All the evils extends into rapaciousness. harpax - animalisticly greedy. The use of violence to pursue the search for happiness and so the term "violent search for happiness."

F. The word harpax is used by Jesus in Mt. 23.25-33 to illustrate the Pharisees in a violent search for happiness through religion.

G. Also n Mt. 23.25, the word self-indulgence reveals a little more about covetousness. It is total enslavement to self - which explains why coveting is idolatry. Eph. 5.5; Col. 3.5 - It is self and materialistic idolatry.

H. And therefore, we have Christ's warning in Luke 12.15

2. The origin of covetousness is the sin nature (OSN). Mk. 7.22

3. This way of life does not consider the rights or freedoms of others, including relatives and friends. Ex. 20.17 - your neighbor.

4. The search for happiness extends to all details of life. Ex. 20.17 - house, wife, servants, livestock, or anything. Solomon is a good example - Ec. 2.1-11

5. Christ's evaluation of the covetousness philosophy. Luke 12.13-21 and Mt. 6.19-34

6. Thus it is quite improper for saints. Eph. 5.3

7. Grace giving related to covetousness. 2 Cor. 9.5-7

8. The communication ministry related to covetousness. 1 Tim. 3.3; 1 Thes. 2.5;

CF - false teachers at 2 Peter 2.2-3

9. Romans 7.7-8: covetousness as the sign-post to man's depravity and the presence of the sin nature.

10. The Divine viewpoint that offsets covetousness is found at 1 Tim. 6.3-19.



1. Orientation to creation:

A. God as the creator: Gen. 1.1; Jn. 1.1-3; Col. 2.16

B. The owner: Psalm 24.1

C. The message: Psalm 19.1-3; Rom. 1.20

2. The original design for man: Gen. 1.28-29

3. The loss of that rulership:

A. The fall of man: Gen. 3

B. The new ruler: Jn. 12.31; 14.30; 16.11 with Lk. 4.6 and 2 Cor. 4.4

C. After the flood: Gen. 9.1-7

4. The curse on creation:

A. Rom. 8.20-23

B. Gen. 3.17-19

5. Therefore we need to recognize and respect the negative effects of the curse. Indicated by Noah in Gen. 9.20-21

6. The ultimate effect of the curse is physical death- 1 Cor. 15.21

A. Gen. 2.17 - "dying you shall die."

B. Gen. 3.19 b - return to dust

7. Creation humility also determines how we relate to other life forms.

A. Gen. 9.2-3 - domination of animal life for personal benefit.

1. Primary moral use: permanent - food supply and clothing -

1 Tim. 4.4; Gen. 3.21

2. Primary worship source: temporary - animal sacrifices.

Lev. 17.11; Heb. 9.19-22

B. Domestic: used to provide relief from the curse.

1. Proper attitude: Pr. 12.10

2. Applied at Deut. 25.4

C. Wild:

1. Protection against authorized: 1 Sam. 17.31-33

2. Hunting for the sport of it does not qualify as protection of one's life nor as domestic benefit.

3. extinction of species is in God's hands entirely and only becomes a concern for man as it relates to his use of animals for relief from the curse.

4. Therefore protection of a type of snail (etc) by rejecting the construction of a much needed water control such as a damn is creature arrogance and stupidity.

8. Man has been equipped to employ the laws of nature and its materials in order to alleviate the negative effects of the curse.

A. But if man depletes those materials (natural resources) then he hinders his ability to endure the curse.

B. TF common sense must also be employed to protect natural resources and cultivate them so there will be ample supply to meet the needs of the coming generations.

C. But technology has developed and been employed faster than man's wisdom so that the reaping of many resources surpasses the natural ability for them to be replenished.

D. So in many cases some resources have been totally depleted.

E. In other cases, when man has discovered the problem soon enough, he has used that same technology to cultivate the resources and control the reaping.

9. Restrictions toward creation:

A. Not to be worshiped: Ex. 20.2-5; Deut. 4.19; Rom. 1.21-23

B. Animals not for sex: Lev. 18.23



1. Two Hebrew words:

A. Arabh -

1. To give in pledge for yourself; put up a security.
2. To take on pledge "for" another. surety

B. Taqa - to clap hands in ratification of a financial contract.
Usually an obligation of debt and sometimes in surety.

2. Principle of suretyship: Genesis 43:9 - Arabh + direct object
ie, hold me responsible.

3. Warning against going surety: Proverbs 11:15

A. He who is surety: Arabh + direct object (for a stranger)
B. Going surety: tAqa - qal participle = "striking hands."

4. Warning against credit in general: Proverbs 22:26-27

A. Give pledge: tAqa - he who "strikes the hands" in financial obligation
B. Become surety for debts: Arabh + direct object of "debts" - ie, your own debts.
C. BUT - verse 27, indicates that this is in a context of one who "does not have" the assets to meet the obligation and ends up losing vital possessions.

D. We must distinguish between this kind of credit buying: ie, using credit when you do not have the means to repay.

AND - use of credit in lieu of cash or check - having full ability to meet the credit obligation at the time payment is due.

5. The foolishness of credit buying: Proverbs 17:18

A. A man lacking heart: no moral discretion, common sense or wisdom.
B. pledges: tAqa - claps his hands in a financial obligation
C. Becomes surety: Arabh + ArubAh = pledges a pledge
D. In the presence of: lipenay = in the face of or simply "to."
Thus, not a "surety" situation, but a personal debt.

E. Surety is indicated by the preposition "le" or a simple direct object.

6. Principle of aid in a "moral" society instead of financial oppression:

A. Charging interest to one's countryman is not socially beneficial, and was forbidden by the law of Moses. Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35-40; Deuteronomy 23:19-20; Neh. 5:7; Psalm 15:5; Proverbs 28:8; Jeremiah 15:10; Ezekiel 18:8, 13, 17; 22:12.

B. Generous "lending:" Deuteronomy 15:7-11

7. The credit "circle" condemned: Nehemiah 5:1-13

verse 1 - The outcry
verses 2-4 - The cause

a. Not getting enough food - verse 2
b. Therefore mortgaging property (Arabh) verse 3
c. And borrowing money: verse 4

verse 5, The result: financial oppression by their countrymen.

verse 6 - Divine viewpoint expressed by Nehemiah , "I was angry" (chArAh)

verse 7a - Evaluation: "I consulted with my heart."

verses 7b-9 - The indictment

a. Contended with the leaders
b. Interest issue: forbidden at Lev. 25:36-37
c. Are we buying back our brethren from slavery to others so we can enslave them ourselves? v. 8

d. verse 9a - not good
e. verse 9b - gives a bad testimony

verses 10-11 - lending money and grain, taking land in pledge, interest
verse 12 - they recognize their error and change.
verse 13 - Nehemiah uses divine authority to encourage the follow through.

Points of Application:
It is not good to mortgage property to buy food. verse 5
It is not good to mortgage property to pay taxes. verse 4

8. It is not good to borrow money or mortgage property in order to give to the church.
See TOPIC: GIVING, for amplification, but basically giving is based on what you have, not on what you can borrow.

A. Prosperity: 1 Corinthians16:2.
B. Possession: 2 Corinthians 8:12

9. Any vow or promise made by the believer should be kept at all costs. Deuteronomy 23:21-23
Numbers 30 gives Mosaic guidelines for the honoring of vows or promises, whether it be a social, financial or spiritual obligation.

10. Comments on Romans 13:8

A. Owe nothing: present active imperative of opheilō + māde

1. This picks up from verses 12:17-21 and the issue of "personal" vengeance. Ie, "paying back"

2. Verse 17, Someone give you evil (kakos) and you think you "owe" that person back some of your own "evil."

3. But: apodidomi (present active participle) + ouden =
"paying back to NO ONE evil for evil." (kakos for kakos)

B. So the only obligation you have to all men is LOVE.

1. Defined at verse 10 as doing no evil (kakos) to a neighbor
2. And amplified at verse 9 by reference to the 10 commandments of "moral" responsibility.

C. We CANNOT use this verse to speak against credit buying. It is not in view and not an issue in the entire context.



It has commonly been taught that there are FOUR crowns that the believer will receive as rewards for Christian faithfulness when he is evaluated at the reward seat of Christ
See Topic: Reward Seat of Christ

However, while the crowns of life, righteousness and glory are clearly seen to be received in connection with Christ's second coming, the so-called "crown of joy" is not.
See Topic: Rewards for details about the other crowns

Furthermore, the other crowns are identified "THE crown of", but the "crown of joy" is NEVER called THE crown of joy.
The only two places we find it mentioned is in reference to a personal, and may I suggest, an "emotional" expression by Paul and others concerning the salvation reality of those to whom he ministered.

At 1 Thes. 2:19, it says that "they" (the converts) are 3 things TO HIM (Paul) and his evangelistic team (OUR).
The presence of these people with Christ at His appearing - IS
1. OUR expectation: elpis means confident expectation. Paul has CONFIDENCE that they will be there in the presence of Christ.
2. and joy: chara refers to inner happiness. Their salvation is the source of great joy to Paul.
3. and crown of exultation: kauchesis refers to a confident (almost boasting idea) celebration; an emotional exhilaration.
The "crown" is idiomatic (as so often in Proverbs - 4:9; 12:4; 14:24; 16:31; 17:6). It the idea is that of wearing your feelings and attitude - your character- like a hat (crown) on your head.

At verse 20, "for you are our glory and joy." This explains Paul's use of the word, crown.
In other words, I am sooooo proud, that I wear your membership in the family of God like a crown on my head.

At Phillipians 4:1, it is not even called a "crown of joy." Paul just calls the believers, "my joy and crown. It seems that he is using the same idiom that he used with the Thessalonian believers. The salvation reality of these believers is a source of great joy to Paul, and a "badge" (crown) that he wears very proudly.
In other words, their status and function as believers is what gives him joy and reflects his evangelistic and teaching success like a crown on the head radiates one's honor.

The other three crowns are each mentioned as being FUTURE rewards.
The crown of celebration is what Paul is experiencing "in time," while here on earth.

What this means is that we do not have a separate REWARD for "witnessing" success during our life here on earth. But there does not need to be since the crown of life directly relates to our testimony in faith-rest endurance, which includes faithfulness in witnessing.
And the crown of righteousness is clearly for "fighting the good fight; finishing the course and keeping the faith . . ." which certainly includes our evangelistic endeavors.




©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


Home | Recent Additions | Studies | Commentary


Prophecy | Articles | Topical | About Us