These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation

Return to LETTER bar


Lake of Fire: Eternal judgment

Last Trumpet

Liberty: Christian freedom

Life: When does life begin?

LIFE: Allotted Portion in life



LIGHT: The Provision of God

LILITH: Isaiah 34:14

LORD: (Yahweh, Jehovah) Technical Background
Lord_Jehovah: audio

The Lord's Day




The Love Structure Diagram

GOD: The Love of God

:LOVE: Beneficent love

LOVE: 15 Character Factors

LOVE: How to Treat Others


LOVE: Worship Love

Lake of Fire

1. The lake of fire is a literal place of darkness, filled with unquenchable, non-consuming fire, designed by God as the place of everlasting judgment.

A. Darkness: Mat. 8:11-12; 2 Pet. 2:17
B. Fire: Rev. 21:8
C. Unquenchable: Mark 9:48
D. Non-consuming: Mark 9:48
E. Everlasting: Rev. 20:10

2. The term lake of fire does not occur in the Old Testament, but the fact of an everlasting fire of judgment is adequately represented.

A. Daniel 12:2

1. And many: Old Testament believers at the time of the arrival of Jesus at the Day of the LORD.
2. Who sleep in the dust of the ground: indicates the sleep of the body which is under decay and waiting for resurrection.

3. Will awake: reference to the body receiving resurrection, not the soul "waking up."

a. The soul is not "sleeping." But prior to Christ's resurrection, it is in the comfort section of hades (or sheol).

b. And after Christ's "first" ascension they are in the third heaven.

4. These to everlasting life: Lit: to the life (chay) of perpetuity (ōlAm).

5. But the others: unbelievers whose bodies are also asleep but whose souls are in the "torments" section of hades.

a. These also will "awake" as implied by the context.
b. And as Jesus taught at John 5:28-29.
c. But it does not take place at the same time. Their resurrection awaits the end of the 1000 year kingdom. Rev. 20:5

6. To disgrace: cherpAh - attitude toward self. Shame and the sorrow that attends it.

7. And everlasting contempt: ōlAm dārAōn

a. This is the attitude of others toward those judged.
Abhorrence, rejection, hatred (Divine viewpoint).

b. dārAōn only occurs here and at Isaiah 66:24.

B. Isaiah 66:24b

1. Their worm: represents man's physical life and insignificance
2. shall not die: indicates the perpetuation of a physical existence.
3. And their fire - not quenched: This is the only direct Old Testament reference to the everlasting fire of judgment.

4. An abhorrence: dārAōn - vehement hatred and rejection based on application of divine viewpoint.

5. To all mankind: This attitude simply reflects the attitude that God has toward all who have rejected Him.

3. In the gospels, Jesus used the term gehenna to represent everlasting judgment.

A. Background:

1. It is the Greek word for the Hebrew - valley of Hinnom or tophet. (See Topheth (Gehenna))
2. It was the place where the Jews had practiced all the terrible things of the phallic cult, including child sacrifice. Jer. 7:31; 19:2-6

3. later, the place served as the receptacle for all manner of pollution and garbage.

4. Therefore, because there were constant fires burning to consume the garbage, the term came to be used to represent everlasting judgment.

B. Used by Jesus:

1. Mat. 5:22 - minimum qualification for entrance into the gehenna of fire.

a. Mental attitude sin of anger
b. The resultant verbal sin of name-calling.

2. Principle of hand vs. the body. Mat. 5:29-30

a. Because of the minimum qualification for entrance into gehenna, all members of the human race are assigned to it. Heb. 9:27

b. If that minimum qualification is not present, then the assignment can be canceled.

c. The only way for it to be removed, is for God to provide a savior to bear sins, as He did in the person of Christ. 1 Pet. 2:24; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 John 2:2

d. But man must accept Christ's work on his behalf in order to have the removal of the minimum qualifications recorded and the assignment of judgment canceled. John 3:18; 5:24

e. Man must accept God's solution since anything he himself attempts is inadequate and keeps the assignment in force. Rom. 4:4

f. Man's solutions can only be overt as he cannot deal with the soul without divine aid.

g. If man were to devise something to deal with his sin then the only thing that would appear to work would be to remove the "producer" of the sin.

h. Thus, the hand, foot, tongue, etc. cut off.
i. Because in so doing, the rest of the body would appear sinless and not come under judgment.

j. But the solution is not a physical part of the body, but the soul (Mat. 5:22, anger) and since man cannot chop off the soul, he must accept God's solution.

k. Jesus is not suggesting an alternative solution for man but suggesting what man's logic offers when the divine solution is rejected.

l. Thus, since you cannot cut off your sinfulness as it is internal, you must accept the forgiveness provided by Christ's work.

3. Mat. 18:8-9 - same principle, but notice the correlation of terms.

a. V. 8, eternal fire (pur aiōnios)
b. V. 9, the gehenna of fire
c. Mat. 5, just gehenna

4. Mark 9:43-49 - same principle with amplification on the term.

a. V. 43, gehenna, ie, the unquenchable fire (pur asbestos)
b. V. 44 and 46, not in the original
c. V. 48 - quoted from Isaiah 66:24, "whose worm does not die."

1. worm: skōlax = symbol of man's physical insignificance and thus his physical life in general.

2. die: teleutaō, present active indicative.

d. And the fire is not quenched: sbennumi - present. passive indicative.+

5. Luke 12:4-5, the only real threat in life is God's right and power to put you into the gehenna. This should be man's primary concern rather than physical violence and death.

6. Mat. 10:28, Same statement of the threat with amplification.

a. Physical threats cannot destroy the soul.
dunamai - present middle participle + aorist active infinitive of apokteinō.

b. But fear Him: phobeomai - present middle imperative.

c. who is able: dunamai - present mid. participle
d. To destroy: apollumi - aorist active infinitive. This refers to neutralization in spiritual death, not annihilation.

e. Both soul and body: they will be joined to suffer together at the last judgment. John 5:28-29

f. In gehenna: no definite article.

7. Mat. 23:15, the unbeliever is called a son of gehenna
8. Mat. 23:33, religious unbelievers are secure in their appointment to gehenna as long as they remain independent from God.

a. How shall you escape: pōs + pheugō - aorist active subjunctive.
b. the judgment: krisis of the gehenna - Heb. 9:27
(definite article present)

9. Mat. 25:41-46, everlasting punishment vs. life.

a. V. 41, the eternal fire: pur aiōnios
Has been prepared: hetoimadzō, perfect passive part.
For the devil and his angels.

b. V. 46, eternal punishment: kolasis aiōnios
( kolasis occurs only here and at 1 John 4:18)

10. At James 3:6, Gehenna is used as a figure of speech to communicate the continuous effects of the uncontrolled tongue. Just as the fires of gehenna (the garbage dump), burn continuously, so the uncontrolled tongue is a continuous expression of unrighteousness.

4. The lake of fire was originally designed for Satan and his angels. Mat. 25:41

A. Because of sin, all people are in the family of Satan, under judgment and share his place of judgment. John 8:44; 3:18; 1 John 5:19

B. But Christ paid the penalty for sin and provided salvation for all mankind.
John 12:32; 1 John 2:2

C. Therefore, no member of the human race needs to go there. 2 Pet. 3:9; 1 Tim. 2:4

D. The only reason they will go there is if they reject the provision of Christ's work on the cross. John 3:15-18

E. And on that basis, they have a reservation of judgment. Heb. 9:27; 2 Pet. 2:17; Jude 13 (tāreō, perfect passive indicative)
John 3:18, Have been judged already, perfect passive indicative of krinō.

5. Further description of this judgment at Rev. 14:9-11

V. 10
1. He will drink of the wine: to indicate a complete identification with divine justice.
2. Of the wrath of God: divine justice expressed against violation of His perfect righteousness.
3. Mixed in full strength:

a. which as been mixed: perfect passive participle of kerannumi.
b. Full strength = unmixed: akratos - full alcoholic content.
Therefore, a full expression of divine justice.

4. In the cup of His anger: bona fide expression of displeasure when truth is violated. (orgā)
5. And he will be tormented: future passive indicative of basonidzō.
6. With fire and brimstone: indicates a literal type fire, although a non-consuming one, so that the torment is primarily in the soul.

7. In the presence of: enōpion - indicates observation
8. His holy angels and the Lamb: apparently the saints will not take part in this "observation."

1. And the smoke: the visible sign of the fire. Although it does not consume, it produces smoke as indication of the effects it is producing.

2. Of their torment: basonismos
3. goes up: present active indicative of anabainō.
4. Forever: unto ages of ages (eis + accusative plural of aiōn + genitive plural of aiōn). Cf. Heb. 1:8 for the extent of time involved (unto the age of the age, singular).

5. And they do not have: echō, present active indicative + negative
6. Rest: anapausis = cessation (of torment in this case).
7. Day or night: idiom for perpetual. This indicates the duration of the pain.

6. Thus, it is a literal place with a literal fire that produces a literal soul and body agony.

A. Rev. 19:20, beast and false prophet (lake of fire which burns with brimstone).
B. Rev. 20:10, the devil (lake of fire and brimstone, unto the ages of the ages).
C. Rev. 20:14-15, all unbelievers of all ages = 2nd death.
D. Rev. 21:8, all unbelievers identified by their character and deeds. (Lake of fire which burns with fire and brimstone which is the 2nd death).

E. Mat. 25:30, outer darkness; weeping and gnashing of teeth.

7. The real issue of this everlasting torment is the fact of separation from God. 2 Thes.1:9

A. Who will pay: tinō - future indicative = experience or undergo
B. the penalty: dikā - expression of divine justice as the enforcer of righteousness.
Romans 6:23
C. Of eternal: aiōnios
D. destruction: olethros - not annihilation, but a total spiritual and physical RUIN characterized by separation from God.

E. Away from the presence: apo prosōpon = face
(The outer darkness of Mat. 25:30)
F. of the Lord: no association with Jesus Christ
G. And the glory of His strength: ischus - emphasis on the basic essence of the Godhead.

8. The sentence to the lake of fire does not take place until the Great White Throne judgment at the end of the Millennial reign of Christ. Rev. 20:11-15

A. In the meantime, at physical death, the unbeliever's soul is placed in the "torment" section of hades. Luke 16:23

B. At the last judgment, hades delivers up all its unbelievers to the throne (Rev. 20:13). Death is in apposition to hades.

C.The "sea" probably refers to the living unbelievers at the end of the kingdom age, and they too are delivered up to the throne.

D. Then all are put in the lake of fire based on the fact that their name had been blotted out of the book of life.

9. Summary:

A. Hebrews 6:2 - the doctrine of everlasting judgment is a basic doctrine.
B. It is an expression of divine wrath. John 3:36 - orgā.
C. It is divine judgment because of rejected saving truth. 2 Thes. 2:12
D. John 3:36 - it is denial of life with God.

1. The wages of sin is death. Rom. 6:23
2. John 5:24 - talks about passing from death to life.
3. Rev. 20:14 - calls it the second death.

E. It is designated as a spiritual destruction.

1. John 3:16 - perish = apollumi - aorist middle subjunctive
2. 2 Pet. 3:7 - and destruction - apoleia
3. Mat. 10:28 - apollumi - both soul and body
4. Defined in 2 Thes. 1:9 as an existence totally separated from God.
5. But it is not annihilation. Rev. 14:10-11


Life: When does life begin?

When does the soul enter into the body? When does the fetus become a real human being? When does life begin? Is it at conception? Is it at birth? Or is it at some time in between those two events? The process at the creation of Adam, although not conclusive in itself, suggests that there is a fully functional body created and then a soul is created when the breath of lives is placed within that body (Gen. 2:7).

At Isaiah 42:5, we learn that it is God who personally gives breath and spirit to the people on the earth. This suggests that it is not part of the natural physical mechanics of procreation (conception and fetal development).

Hebrews 12:9, suggests that our human father is the father of our flesh, while God is the father of our spirit.

"Furthermore, we had earthly fathers to discipline us, and we respected them; shall we not much rather be subject to the Father of spirits, and live?"


And there are some interesting passages which indicate that God does not provide that "soul" life until birth.
At Job 3:11-16, Job contrasts 2 situations which he wished could have happened in order to avoid his present adversity.

1. The first one: He wishes that he had died AT BIRTH.
Job 3:11-12,

"Why did I not die at birth, Come forth from
the womb and expire? "Why did the knees receive me,
And why the breasts, that I should suck?


In other words, when he was born WITH soul life via that birth, why did he not just "up and die?" Then his soul would have been where the other souls go at death.


Job 3:13-15,

"For now I would have lain down and been quiet;
I would have slept then, I would have been at rest,
With kings and {with} counselors of the earth,
Who rebuilt ruins for themselves;
Or with princes who had gold,
Who were filling their houses {with} silver.


When the soul of the believer left the body through physical death (in an Old Testament context), it went into paradise, which was located in Sheol, there to await the resurrection of the body at the Day of the Lord.


2. The second situation: He wishes he had not even been born. Job 3:16

Or like a miscarriage which is discarded,
I would not be, As infants that never saw light.

Here, we see what was commonly believed in that ancient culture AND by a man who was "blameless and upright; fearing God and turning away from evil." Job. 1:1

The word, miscarriage, is nāphel which comes from the verb nAphal, which means to fall. A nāphel then is that which has FALLEN out rather than that which has actually been birthed. The word only occurs three times in the Old Testament (Job 3:16; Ec. 6:3-5 and Psalm 58:9).

Incidentally, verses 17-19 describe the condition of the dead, not the condition of the miscarriage.

Solomon tells us what his culture believed about the miscarriage (nāphel) at Ecc. 6:3-6

If a man fathers a hundred (children) and lives many years,
however many they be, but his soul is not satisfied with good things,
and he does not even have a (proper) burial, (then) I say,
"better the miscarriage than he, for it comes in futility
and goes into obscurity; and its name is covered in obscurity.
"It never sees the sun and it never knows (anything;)
It is better off than he. "Even if the (other) man lives 1000 years
twice and does not enjoy good things - do not all go to one place?"


The idea that all go to one place refers to the disposition of the physical body and not the soul. According to Ec. 12:7, at birth, the body goes to the dust.

This is very much different from the attitude toward a baby who dies. 2 Sam. 12:22-23

And he said, "While the child was alive,
I fasted and wept; for I said, 'Who knows,
Yahweh may be gracious to me, that the child may live.'
"But now he has died; why should I fast?
Can I bring him back again?
I shall go to him, but he will not return to me."

This clearly means that the baby has gone to the place of paradise where the believers go; where David himself will go when he dies. And this is not simply the disposition of the physical body that is in view, for it is a source of comfort and joy to David.

Another factor is that even in light of His foreknowledge, "knowing" completely all the details of one's life long before he is ever conceived, God views the actual beginning point of that life as the moment of birth.

Isaiah 49:1

Listen to Me, O islands, And pay attention, you peoples from afar.
Yahweh called Me from the womb;
From the body of My mother He named Me.

This is referring to the Messiah in his humanity and that the Messianic commission actually began at birth, although He did not officially manifest Himself until 30 years later.

Isaiah 49:5

And now says Yahweh,
who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant,
To bring Jacob back to Him,
in order that Israel might be gathered to Him

This is still speaking of the Messiah, and indicates that He was formed from the moment of physical birth to accomplish the Messianic purpose. This can be compared with Hebrews 10:5-7, where the Messiah says "when He comes into the world," A body you have prepared for me and I have come to do your will.

Luke 1:15

"For he will be great in the sight of the Lord,
and he will drink no wine or liquor;
and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit,
even OUT FROM his mother's womb.

That is, from the time that he is born, John will have the empowering ministry of the Spirit upon him, but not while he is IN the womb.

There are many passages that people use to suggest that there is soul life in the womb, but none of them actually prove it, and most of them do not even refer to the fetus. The most common argument comes from Luke 1:41-44, but it is not the baby in the womb that is experiencing joy. It is Elizabeth's joy and the baby has a physical reaction based on the emotional and spiritual stimuli on Elizabeth's body. Medically speaking, this is called reflex motility.
See Commentary on Luke 1:41ff.

LIFE: Allotted Portion in life

1. Hebrew word portion: chāleq - share, part, allotted portion, chosen priority.

Verb - chAlaq - divide, assign, distribute

2. For the spiritual rebel:

A. Psalm 17.14 - their portion is in life contrasted with the trusting believer in v.15-who has a spiritual portion both in time and eternity.

B. Creature independence:

1. Ec. 2.10 - human pleasure, his portion and only sense of fulfillment.

2. Ec. 3.22 - happy in his activities - that is his portion

3. Ec. 5.18-20 - eat, drink and enjoy - (denies ambassadorship and angelic conflict issues).

C. Arrogant revolt:

1. Job 27.13-23 - natural consequences of the wicked - rAshA

2. Job 31.2-3 - calamity and disaster -ultimate neutralization and frustration with all that he has done in life.

3. For the trusting believer:

A. Ps. 16.5 - Yahweh is the portion of my inheritance - quality of life in time.

And my cup, reference to Divine provision for every situation in life.

B. Psalm 73.25-28-the rock of my heart and my portion forever- leōlAm

C. Psalm 119.57 - Yahweh is my portion - a priority issue evidenced by consistent application of his word.

D. Psalm 142.5 - My portion in the land of the living - in physical life,

my priority is found in spiritual values - character and plan of God.

E. Lamentations 3.24 - context of intense physical adversity - (national destruction) -

And since his priorities are set up in reference to spiritual values (God is my portion) the believer is able to wait with confident trust in God's wisdom and timing.



1. The life of Jesus is the copy book from where we find the secret to the imitation of God. 1 Peter 2:21; Mt. 11:29

2. He is our example in growth: Luke 2:40, 52; Heb. 5:8

3. He is our example in fellowship: John 8:29

4. He is our example in temptation: Mt. 4:1-10

(Psalm 119.11; 1 Cor. 10:13)

5. He is our example in witnessing: John 4:27-38

6. He is our example in humility: John 13:12-17

7. He is our example in self sacrifice: Rom. 15:1-3

8. He is our example in persecution: 1 Peter 2:22-23

9. He is our example in forgiving: Luke 23:44; Col. 3:12-13

10. Not only do we learn about the character expressions of Jesus, but we also learn details about the plan of God. Jesus is the focal point for fulfilling the plan of the Father and in Him dwells all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Col. 2:3

11. Thus studied in conjunction with the apostolic writings we progress to the fulfillment of Eph. 3:14-19



1. God is light: 1 Jn. 1:5a

A. 1 Tim. 6:16

1. Who dwells: oikeō - present passive participle- dwelling
2. in unapproachable light: aprositos - communicates infinite essence in contrast to finite.

a. Absolute in contrast to relative
b. perfect in contrast to imperfect

3. Whom no one has seen: Exodus 33:18 -34:7

a. V. 18 - show me your glory: absolute essence
b. V. 20 - you cannot see my face, ie, glory or essence.
c. For no man can se me and live: infinite vs. finite.

4. What could be seen was a reflection of his glory (light).

a. V. 19 - all my goodness - character attributes
b. V. 23 - my back parts - communicates reflection or shadow

c. V. 34.6 - character attributes: compassion, grace, patience, provision and truth
d. V. 34.7 -= justice: forgiveness or punishment

B. The kingdom of light: Acts 26:18; Col. 1:12; 1 Pet. 2:9

C. 1 Jn. 1:5b - in Him is no darkness at all: no sinfulness, no evil --

1. Therefore, absolute righteousness and uprightness - Ps. 92:15; Deut. 32:4
2. His viewpoint is light: Ps. 36.9; 43.3; 27.1; Dan. 2.22


2. The fall of Lucifer introduces darkness into the universe. Any rejection of light is darkness.

A. All volitional creatures since they were created by God (who is light) are designed to function by light viewpoint in order to have happiness and fulfillment in their existence.

B. When Lucifer rejected light, he experienced darkness.

1. He became self-centered: In darkness you cannot see any further than self, and you cannot see self clearly. Creature arrogance.

2. The result of this arrogance is blindness: distortion of perception.

a. His wisdom became distorted because it was patterned after light.

b. But in darkness, there is no light; no capacity to perceive it or to relate to it except via hatred and antagonism.

3. Thus, his existence is now dominated by arrogance, blindness and hatred.

C. Satan's initial sin (arrogance) was condemned by God and he was sentenced to the lake of fire.

1. Satan protested, attempting to pit Divine love against righteousness and justice.

2. So God has given his a temporary "stay of execution" in order to demonstrate to Satan the perfect compatibility of righteousness, justice and love.

D. Now everything Satan thinks and does is an attack on light.

(Lucifer's new name is Satan which means adversary)

1. The attack is in two areas:

a. Divine authority - arrogance
b. Divine viewpoint - blindness and hatred

2. For two reasons:

a. By nature darkness attacks the light.
b. Satan must discredit God and fulfill his own darkness plan to replace God in order to escape his God-appointed destiny.

E. When Satan was removed from his heavenly duties and was kicked out of heaven, he persuaded 1/3 of the angels to follow him to the earth which they made their headquarters. (based on Rev. 12:4)

1. From here he began forming his darkness agenda - the 5 "I wills" of Isaiah 14.

2. And this was the beginning of his dominion of darkness.
3. But the authority he had was only over his angel associates.
4. It was not until Satan accomplished the fall of Adam that he gained authority over the physical earth.

5. This came to be known as the world or kosmos system as it was organized by Satan into the opposite of the light system.

F. In his absolute sovereignty, God has conceded this temporary authority to Satan in order to allow darkness (evil) to run its natural course an then to expose and judge it permanently for all eternity.

G. So there exists in the universe, 2 kingdoms or spheres of viewpoint, authority and power.

1. The dominion of Satan vs. God
2. Kingdom of darkness vs. light

3. God created man in order to demonstrate to Satan and his angels that Divine righteousness, justice and love are perfect and are all inter-related so that nothing is compromised in condemning the rebellious creatures to the lake of fire.

4. When God decreed to create and use mankind to demonstrate Divine integrity to the fallen angels, it was natural and necessary for Satan to try to frustrate God's intentions. Thus, the attack on Adam and the entire race.

5. When Adam disobeyed God, he fell from light and embraced darkness.

A. He died spiritually:
B. and acquired the SIN NATURE.
C. This explains Adam's reaction at Gen. 3:8-10

1. Principle of 2 Cor. 6:14
2. Thus the barrier: Is. 59:1-2

a. inherent sin: Psalm 51:5 - Sin nature
b. Personal sin: Rom. 3:9-18 - acts of violating divine standards
c. Positional status IN DARKNESS: Ephesians 5:8a

3. And the sin sacrifice: Ps. 22:1-3

D. When Adam rejected God's plan for him in the garden, he gave up his dominion into the hands of the usurper, Satan.

E. Accordingly, he came under the authority and influence of darkness both naturally (through the sin nature) and as represented by Satan.

F. So Satan has incorporated this usurped authority into his dominion of darkness and though temporary, his authority is recognized by God.

1. Ruler of this world: Jn. 12:31
2. God of this world: 2 Cor. 4:4
3. World kingdoms handed over to him: Luke 4:4
4. Ruling authority over death: Heb. 2:14
5. Spiritual authority over man: Jn. 8:44
6. Viewpoint authority in the world: 1 Jn. 5:21
7. Blinding influence over the unbeliever: 2 Cor. 4:4

6. But God has a plan for the ultimate restoration of his absolute authority and influence in the human realm.

A. This is called the eternal plan: Lit, the plan of the ages - Eph. 3:11.
B. It involves the re-establishment of the kingdom of light as the only authority and viewpoint in the universe. 1 Cor. 15:24-28

C. The plan is centered around the human race as the the proving ground for Divine righteousness, justice and love. Heb. 2:6-8; Ps. 92:5-9; Rom. 5:6; Eph. 3:10

D. The outline of the kingdom restoration is in 7 stages:

1. Testing: man in the garden
2. Prophetic: Messianic revelation
3. Redemptive: Messiah's sacrifice
4. Mystery: The calling of Messiah's bride
5. Judgment: 4 stages of Satan's justice destiny
6. Physical kingdom: 1000 year reign of Messiah
7. Eternal:

E. The kingdom is revealed progressively though the human race via the 4 dispensations of human history.

1. Family priesthood:
2. National priesthood:
3. Universal priesthood:
4. Kingdom priesthood:

F. The titles for the restoration plan are: kingdom of God & K. of heaven.

7. The test for mankind: Adam and Eve in the garden. Their is nothing "evil" in the tree. The issue is "obedience." And through the "act" of disobedience the status and effects of spiritual death resulted.

8. The prophetic revelation of the plan of salvation.

A. Gen. 3:15
B. Animal sacrifices
C. Messianic prophecy

9. The redemptive plan of God

A. The incarnation

1. His person: Heb. 1:3
2. His message: Jn. 1:1-14
3. The light of the world: Jn. 8:12; 9:5
4. Jn. 12:35-36
5. Jn. 14:6-11

B. The cross
C. The resurrection
D. Salvation provision

10. So God made the light system available to fallen man in order to demonstrate the greatness of his love and mercy. (Rom. 11:32; Eph. 2:4-7)

A. And the perfection of his R and J. Rm. 9:19-26; 3:26 - might be just

B. The light system made available to man is called eternal life. Jn. 1:4-9; 8:12

C. Man's participation in the light system comes in 3 phases.

1. Eternal life status: entrance and status
2. Eternal life glory: (destiny) future resurrection
3. Eternal life blessing in time. (function)

D. God is glorified at our entrance into light: Eph. 1:13-14; 2:8-9;
     Luke 15:7; 1 Cor. 1:30; Romans 15:7

E. And the believer is left here on earth to represent his character and plan through the reflection of light in every area of life. Ps. 145:8-13; 1 Pet. 2:9-10

F. And then in eternity, the total vindication of Divine essence through X.

Phil. 2:10-11; Eph. 3:21;



1. God expresses Himself in a special quality of justice toward those who love Him. Psalm 119:132

A. Exodus 20.6; Deut. 7:9
B. Application at Psalm 103:17-10
C. Principle of benefit: Romans 8:20
D. Ephesians 6:24 - grace provision

2. Provision of special resources: I Cor. 2:9-10

A. Romans 8:32
B. 2 Peter 1:3-5

3. Protection provision for those who love him. Psalm 145:20; Psalm 31:23

4. Love directed toward God's word provides benefit

A. Psalm 119:165
B. Proverbs 4:6
C. Proverbs 8:17
D. Proverbs 8:21

5. Loving God enables the believer to find true fulfillment In the moral arena of this earthly life.  James 2:5; Mt. 5:5; 1 Peter 3:10-12; Ps. 34:8-18

6. Summary of benefits: Psalm 91:14-16

A. deliverance
B. protection
C. prayer success
D. support in pressure
E. Rescue
F. promotion
G. fulfillment In life
H. deliverance via abundant life reality on earth.

7. The mandate for loving God in the Old Testament:
Deut. 6:5 with Mt. 22:37

8. If any one does not love God he is shut off from all these blessings.

A. Natural consequences, Eph. 6:24
B. Experientially, this functions like a curse. 1 Cor. 16:22

9. Loving God is amplified by 3 character factors. Ps. 97:10-12

A. grace function: chAsiyd = perspective
B. character consistency: tsadiyq - righteous = growth
C. moral consistency: yAshAr - upright = obedience

10. Loving God is characterized by occupation with His word.
Jn. 14:23-24; 15:9-12; 16:12-15

11. Loving God is characterized by application of beneficent love to others.
1 Jn. 4:20-21; 5:1-3; Mt. 22:37-40

12. Loving God in a persecution context produces future reward at the justice seat of Christ. James 1:12

13. A teaching summary:

     1. Degree of devotion: Deut. 6:5 with Mat. 22:37
     2. The action of love:
          a. The word: John 14:23-24; 15:9-12; 16:12-15
          b. Application of beneficent love: 1 Jn 4:20-21; 5:1-3; Mt. 22:37-40
     3. The comparisons with love:
          a. Ps. 97:10, hate evil. cf. Jude 23
          b. Details of life:  Mat. 6:19-29; James 4:4; Rev. 12:11
          c. Human relationships: Mat. 10:34-39; Luke 14:26-35
     4. Keep yourselves in the love of God.  Jude 20-21



1. Definition: The quality of love which seeks the Divine viewpoint benefit of the object.

It is represented by the Greek word, agapā.

A. From the negative: Rom. 13.8-10 - does no harm

B. From the positive: Gal. 5.13 - serve one another

2. The mandate for love:

A. 1 Jn. 3.23-24 -- God's policy

B. 1 Jn. 2.7-11 ---The issue of fellowship

3. The three guidelines for love:

A. The example of God the Father: 1 Jn. 4.7-11 (Mt. 5.43-48; Lk.6.27-38)

B. The example of Christ: Jn. 13.34

1. Eph. 5.1-2

2. Rom. 15.1-3

3. 1 John 2.6-11

C. The example of self: Mt. 22.34-40

1. Eph. 5.28-29

2. Mt. 7.12

4. Love then is the operative word for living the Christian way of life.

A. Gal. 5.6 with 1 Cor. 13.13

B. 1 Cor. 16.14

C. Mt. 22.34-40

5. Humility love: Expressed toward other believers because of the positional and family equality which exists in the body of Christ. (Application of BROTHERLY LOVE)

A. Phil. 2.1-4 - Divine viewpoint equality

B. Col. 3.12-13 - Five emotions of grace orientation (splangnon)

compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness, patience

C. Eph. 4.1-2 - patience and forbearance.

D. 1 Peter 4.8 - love covers a multitude of sins.

6. Unity love: Expressed for the promotion of doctrinal purity among believers.

A. Eph. 4.3-6

B. Col. 3.14-17

C. 1 Jn. 1.5-7; 2.3-6

D. 1 Thes. 5.13b-15

7. Exhortation love: Expressed personally to individuals for the promotion of doctrinal purity.

A. Principle of Heb. 12.6 - Whom the Lord loves

B. Gal. 6.1-2

C. Rom. 15.1-4

8. Evangelistic love: Expressed to the unbeliever so they might be saved.

A. Reflects the principle of God's desire: 1 Tim. 2.4 and 2 Pet. 3.9

B. Reflects the principle of God's love: Jn. 3.16 and Eph. 5.2

C. 1 Cor. 10.31-11.1

D. 1 Cor. 2.1-5

E. 1 Thes. 2.1-9 (survey of principles)

9. Generosity love: Desire to help in physical and material needs - Heb. 6.10

A. Rom. 12.13 (includes hospitality)

B. 1 Jn. 3.17-18

C. Jas. 2.14-18

D. Principle of genuine need: 2 Thes. 3.6-15

E. Mt. 5.38-48 - persecution context

10. How love is developed:

A. 1 Tim. 1.5 - 3 factors for proper expression of love

1. Cleansed heart: weeding out of darkness viewpoint an sins.

2. Good conscience: Absolute Divine viewpoint standards

3. un-hypocritical faith: acceptance & application through faith thinking.

B. 2 Cor. 3.18

C. Jn. 17.26

D. Gal. 5.22-23

E. 1 Jn. 2.3-5

11. SUMMARY: 1 Cor. 13.4-8


LOVE: 15 Character Factors

1 Corinthians 13.4-8

1. Love is patient: makrothumeō - present active indicative

A. makro=long

B. thumeō - comes from thumos (passion, anger)

C. Thus, long time before anger is expressed or passion is shown.

D. patient under emotional pressure.

E. The present tense indicates the constant expression of love. Love is never anything but patient.

2. Love is kind: chrāsteuomai - present middle indicative (only occurs here)

A. God's character: chrāstos and chrāstotās

1. Luke 6.35 - impartial generosity cf. Mt. 5.43-48

2. Rom. 2.4 - forbearance and patience

3. Eph. 2.7-9; Titus 3.4-5; 1 Pet. 2.3 --- salvation provision

B. Used with believers: Gal. 5.22; Eph. 4.32; Col. 3.12; 1 Cor. 15.33

C. Grace orientation expressed through impartial sensitivity, non-violence and generosity.

3. Love is not jealous: zāloō - present active indicative + negative

jealousy is a mental attitude sin which combines covetousness and pride.

A. Jealousy originally was one of the 7 Divine viewpoint attitudes God designed for the human soul.

(Respect, love, pride, ambition, hatred, jealousy and anger)

B. Jealousy was the attitude of protectiveness and zeal for the promotion of Divine viewpoint in man's environment.

C. But through the distortion of the sin nature, this protectiveness and zeal was re-directed to self and the promotion of self.

D. Thus, jealousy emanates from the sin nature. Gal. 5.21; Mk. 7.22

E. And is evidence of the sin nature's control. 1 Cor. 3.1-3

F. Jealousy is a characteristic of the unbeliever lifestyle. Titus 3.3; Rm.1.29

4. Love does not brag: CT - is not conceited --- (only here)

perperuomai - present middle indicative + negative: to be puffed up with a lot of air.

Communicates a conceited attitude, bragging and "wind-bagging" throughout life.

5. Is not arrogant: phusioō - present passive indicative + negative (puffed up with nothing but thinks he has it all and is all) rebellious, defiant, schismatic life style.

A. Arrogance replaces beneficent love w/ self-promotion at the expense of others.

B. Academic success without grace produces arrogance. 1 Cor. 8.1; Is. 47.10

C. Material success without grace produces arrogance. Hosea 13.6;

D. Arrogance deceives ones whole life style. Obadiah v. 3.

6. Does not act unbecomingly: aschāmoneō- present active indicative + negative (used only 2 times)

A. 1 Cor. 7.36 - a father being unfair or dishonest concerning an established standard for a daughter's marriage.

B. schāma = a scheme, pattern or design; a = negative to that scheme or design.

C. The design is God's established standards for the moral structure and function of the human race.

D. It refers to negative living in the sphere of God's morality structure.

E. Thus, does not act immorally

7. Does not seek it's own: zāteō- present active indicative + negative + the things of it's own.

Thus, love is not self-seeking or promoting at the expense of others.

A. CF 1 Cor. 10.23-24, 31-33

B. Rom. 15.1-3

C. Rom. 13.8-10

8. Is not provoked: paroxunō -present passive indicative + negative, to provoke to wrath, irritate.

in the passive voice - to be irritated or provoked to wrath

A. patience with people and circumstances.

B. These things do not control you, but God's word controls you.

C. Apply to - personalities, children, weather, physical discomfort, traffic, politics, crime, crowds, lines, dripping faucets.

9. Does not take into account a wrong suffered: ie, does not hold a grudge

A. logidzomai - present middle indicative + negative: to reckon, impute, take into account

B. the wrong: kakos - that which is done to you or even to others.

C. Love does not hold a grudge or seek vengeance.

1. Forgiveness: Eph. 4.2, 32

2. Divine justice: Rom. 12.17-21

10. Does not rejoice in unrighteousness: take pleasure in that which is opposite to Divine viewpoint.

A. rejoice: chairō - present active indicative + negative: be glad, take pleasure in

B. adikia - that which is contrary to God's standards of righteousness.

C. Examples: sexual perversion and jokes; evil deeds; criminal ingenuity; other's misfortunes - Pr. 17.5

11. But (in contrast) rejoices in the truth: sugchairō - present active indicative + alātheia

Divine viewpoint as it relates to all areas of morality living and worship.

12. Bears all things: stegō - present active indicative - endure, cover, silence, conceal

A. Endurance over the normal pressures of life which hit from the outside.

B. Physical pressures, world pressures, moral pressures.

13. Believes all things: pisteuō - present active indicative: an attitude that gives the benefit of the doubt in the sphere of our moral environment. MORAL OPTIMISM

Trusting people at the onset (but using reason and wisdom)

14. Hopes all things: elpidzō - present active indicative: absolute confidence in the plan of God.

knowing and believing Rom. 8.28. This is SPIRITUAL OPTIMISM.

15. Endures all things: hupomenō - present active indicative: to remain up under the pressure.

Word for consistent victory over the pressures of the Christian way of life which seek to bring about a spiritual defeat.

Application of God's character and plan to the antagonistic environment.

16. Love never fails: piptō - present active indicative + oudepote: (at no time) never falls

ie, falls from its place of prominence and authority as the prime ingredient for living the Christian way of life.

Gal. 5.6 - faith operating through love

Rom. 13.8 - He who loves the other has fulfilled the law


LOVE: Worship Love

1. Worship love Is directed toward God, His word and His policies.

A. Worship is to be accomplished through the filling of the Spirit and Bible truth.

1. John 4:23-24 - proskuneō
2. Phil. 3:3 - latreuō

B. Worship love seeks to promote the benefit of the character and plan of God through praise and service.

1. latreuō - Heb. 12:28; Phil. 3:3; Rom. 1:4; 2 Tim. 1:3
2. Fulfills proskuneō from John 4:24
3. proskuneō is not used In the letters for Christian life activity.
(1 Cor. 14:25, this is a God consciousness, salvation Issue)
(Hebrews -- an Old Testament context)

2. Worship In a church age context Is explained by the ward - eusebeia.

A. The Divine policy by which we express ourselves to God. It means, good worship. 2 Peter 1:3; 3:11; 1 Tim. 2:2

B. Training for good worship: 1 Tim. 4:7-8 with 2 Peter 1:5-8

C. Worship In the church age Is centered around the person and work of Christ. 1 Timothy 4:16

D. There are specific and absolute standards for good worship. Titus 1:1; 1 Tim. 6:3

E. False worship: 2 Tim. 3:5

1. 1 Tim.6:5
2. Isaiah 29:13

3. Basic love dedication is expressed at the moment of salvation.
Placing value on God's system for salvation Is where worship begins.

A. 2 Thes. 2:10 - receive the love of the truth
B. John 3:36- hear and obey.
C. 2 Thes. 1:8 - obey the gospel
D. Luke 8:13 - receive the word with Jo,
E. 1 Pet. 1:8 - love and rejoice

4. Growth dedication: perpetuation of love from 2 Thes. 2:10.

A. John 10:31
B. 1 Pet. 2:2
C. James 1:19-21 quick to hear (humility)

5. Functional dedication: James I:22, application and obedience to the truth

A. Ephesians 6:24
B. John 14:15, 23-24
C. Jude 1:21
D. Rev. 2:4
E. 2 Thes. 3:5
F. 1 Cor. 2:9
G. 1 Cor. 16:22, phileō

6. Service dedication: I Car. 10:31; Rom. 14:7-8

A. Romans 12:1
B. Hebrews 13:15-16


LIGHT: The Provision of God

1. Salvation provision:

A. Luke 1:76-79
B. Luke 2:29-32
C. Is. 9:2 with Mt. 4:12-17
D. John 12:46
E. Acts 26:23

2. The Drawing of God: John 1:9

3. Thus the one who believes enters into God's kingdom and family of LIGHT.

A. Jn. 12:36
B. Acts 26:18
C. Eph. 5:8
D. Col. 1:12
E. I Thes. 5:5
F. 1 Peter 2:9

4. The believer is exhorted to reflect that position in his life.

A. Eph. 5:8
B. Rom. 13:12
C. I Thes. 5:5-8
D. Is. 2:5

5. God's provision for the believer's life on earth is called LIGHT.

A. Light in general:

1. Psalm 27:1
2. Psalm 97:11
3. Psalm 112:4
4. Micah 7:7-8

B. HIS light:

1. Psalm 36:8-9
2. Psalm 43:3
3. Job 29:3

6. The purpose of Divine discipline is to produce light reflection. Job 33:16-22, 29-33; Heb 12:10

7. Walking in the light is the basis for fellowship with God. l John l:7

A. Psalm 89:15-16
B. Fellowship is determined by following LIGHT standards in three categories. Eph. 5:9

1. goodness (agathosunā) morality living (action)
2. righteousness (dikaiosunā) spiritual living (character)
3. Truth (alātheia) conformity to the revelation of God

C. Psalm 15 - Fellowship with God through moral integrity

8. The believer who walks in the LIGHT becomes a light bearer of truth to others.

A. Mt. 5:14-16 C. Eph.5:8-16
B. Proverbs 4:18 D. Phil. 2:12-16


LILITH: Isaiah 34:14

Britannica says of this Jewish superstition:

"(Hebrew: Night Monster), female demon of Jewish folklore; her name and personality are derived from the Babylonian-Assyrian demon called Lilit, or Lilu. In rabbinic literature Lilith is variously depicted as the mother of Adam's demonic offspring following his separation from Eve or as his first wife, who left him because of their incompatibility. Three angels tried in vain to force her return; the evil she threatened, especially against children, was said to be counteracted by the wearing of an amulet bearing the names of the angels. A superstitious cult associated with Lilith survived among some Jews as late as the 7th century AD."

Let us keep in mind that ANY superstition is just that. It has no substance and certainly has no validation in the Bible. It becomes as powerful as "men" make it and that it is all.
There are many ancient traditions and superstitions that have no support in the Bible and should have no place in Christian theology.

Isaiah 34:14 is the only place the word "lilith" occurs in the Bible.

It comes from the nouns, layelAh and layil, which simply mean, "night."
It thus was used to indicate a creature of the night rather than the day, but did not and does not have any demonic or mythical connotations as used by Isaiah.

Concerning the future of Edom (v.6), Isaiah records at v. 14,

"And the desert creatures shall meet with the wolves,
And hairy (wild) goat shall also cry to its kind;
Also the night creature (lilith) will reside there,
And she shall find for herself a place of rest."

This use has nothing to do with the superstition that came from the Babylonian mythology or with the mythical "night demon" that would terrorize children.

The translations that render this word as "night monster," etc, are influenced by an imagined supposition that this is what Isaiah would have in mind. The context is not talking about a "home" for demons, but a home for wild animals (v. 11-15) which would "run free" in a land area that has been emptied of its human population (v. 10, "none shall pass through it forever and ever.")


LORD: (Yahweh, Jehovah) Technical Background

1. YHWH occurs 6823 times in the OT and is usually translated as The LORD, with LORD in all captial letters.

2. That is to distinguish it from the word adon and adonay (plural) which means sir, master, lord, one in authority.

3. This is the "personal" name of God - and the only one He has. All the other designations are TITLES.

4. The definite article (the) NEVER occurs with this name and should never be translated with it. In the same way that we do not say, the Michelle, or the Ron, so we should not say, the Yahweh. (However, in the Greek, they do employ the definite article with personal names.)

5. After the Babylonian captivity, (605-536 BC) a verbal tradition developed among the Jews to pronounce the name YHWH as adonay instead of speaking the name.

6. They misapplied the principle of Ex. 20:7 and Lev. 24:16.

A. Because they did not want to violate this commandment, they decided that is was improper to EVER say the personal name of God.

B. Thus, they devised a system to avoid reading it in their scriptures. They would say adonay instead of YHWH.

7. This tradition was perpetuated into the LXX (septuagint - Greek translation of the OT made in the 3rd century BC) and was therefore rendered with the Greek word kurios - lord.

8. In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, the Masoretes developed the system for vowel sounds called vowel points. (prior to this the Hebrew language was all consonants and the vowel sounds were preserved through an oral tradition.

9. In order to preserve the verbal tradition of not pronouncing the personal name of God (YHWH), they placed the vowel points from adonay (lord) on the consonants YHWH in such a way that it could not be pronounced when found in written form.

10.This then prompted the reader to say adonay instead of YHWH when they came across the name of God.

11.Christian scholars have consistently perpetuated the tradition in English translations by not translating YHWH as a personal name, but instead translating it as The LORD.

12.But they have been consistent in rendering YHWH as LORD in all captitals to distinguish it from adonay - lord.

13.Furthermore, sometimes the scripture refers to YHWH as adonay, in which case we would find, "the Lord YHWH."

A. In such cases, the translation, Lord LORD would be awkward to say the least. In these cases most English translations have rendered it as Lord GOD.

B. GOD in all capitals, to inform us that it is really YHWH instead of the Hebrew word for God based on the root el (eloah, elohiym, el).

14.There is also a shortened form of YHWH in the OT which is rendered as Yah, and refers to the same personal name of God. This shortened form helps us determine what was the original pronunciation of YHWH as we study the grammatical background.

A. Based on Exodus 3.14-15, it can be traced back to the "to be" verb, hawah (archaic form) or hayah

B. I am that I am: is a 1st person singular form which looks like this, ehyeh. This of course refers to God's personal revelation concerning His absolute existence.

C. God reveals Himself in this way to confirm the name that had been used of Him from the beginning all through Genesis.

D. From the first person form, the logical change to the 3rd person form relates God as "the one who is" - ie, the absolute and unchanging one.

E. At v. 15, this change is made and YHWH says to Moses, Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, The LORD, the God of your fathers - - - has sent me to you.

OR - YHWH, the God (elohiym) of your fathers - - -

F. The 3rd person form for the to be verb - "he is" looks like this - yiyeh or yiweh (using the archaic form - hawah)

G. Since the shortened form Yah has been preserved for us, it is easy to render the whole form as Yahweh, and the change from yi- to ya- could possibly be for emphasis which the Hebrews did quite often.

H. The recognition of the above items is universally accepted by Christian scholarship today.

15. When Jesus says at John 8:58, "before Abraham became, I AM," He was claiming the "absolute existence" inherent in the term, "I am."
He was thus, proclaiming himself to be Yahweh.
The Jews who heard this understood exactly what Jesus meant - so in v. 59, they picked up stones to try to kill him.

16. Explanation of Exodus 6:3

A. Yahweh's statement at Ex. 6:3 is a reference to "covenant relationships."

B. In the previous COVENANTS that God made with Abe, Isaac and Jacob, the covenant was confirmed by God referring to Himself as "God The Sufficient One" (true meaning of el shaddai - not almighty. Power is not directly related to that title).

C. Previous to this God revealed himself via yahweh all the time.

1. Adam and Eve knew Him by that name. IN fact, when the first born arrived - she actually thought that he was the promised deliverer (Yahweh in the flesh) -thus at Gen. 4:1, "I have gotten one, a man - Yahweh." (the ath- is probably the sign of the direct object, rather than the preposition, with.)

2. Gen. 4:25 - "then men began calling upon the name of Yahweh." They certainly knew who He was.

3. Noah's prophecy blesses "Yahweh, the God of Shem." Gen. 9:26.

4. At Gen. 13:4, "Abram called on the name of Yahweh."

5. At Gen. 15:2, Abram actually talks to Yahweh, "O Lord yahweh."

D. At Gen. 15:7, God tells Abe, "I am Yahweh, who brought you out of Ur."

BUT - when God makes a COVENANT with Abraham, it is made via the title, el shadday. Gen. 17:1

E. Isaac knew Yahweh and prays to Him, Gen. 25:21.

BUT - when Yahweh confirms the covenant with Isaac at Gen. 26:24, He uses the same designation "indirectly," "I am the God (elohim) of your father Abraham."

F. Jacob knew Yahweh (Gen. 28:16-21), "Surely Yahweh is in this place and I did not know it," (v. 16) - and v. 21, "then Yahweh will be my God."

BUT - when Yahweh confirms the covenant to Jacob at Gen. 35:9-12, He uses the same title, "I am el shadday."

G. This is what Yahweh meant when he said at Exodus 6:3-4, "and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God Almighty, but {by} My name, LORD, I did not make Myself known to them.

"And I also ESTABLISHED MY COVENANT with them,
to give them the land of Canaan, the land in which they sojourned."

H. He is talking about making a covenant with them. He did not make that covenant as yahweh, but as el shadday. But here, He lays the foundation of the covenant that He will make with the nation of Israel when He brings them out of Egypt. Ex. 6:6-8 (NASB)

"Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, 'I am the Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.

'Then I will take you for My people, and I will be your God; and you shall know that I am the Yahweh your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

'And I will bring you to the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I will give it to you {for} a possession; I am the Yahweh.'"

I. And He is to be known by the name of Yahweh forever: Exodus 3:15

"This is my Name forever, and this is how I am to be remembered to all generations"

17. The name Jehovah:

A. For us today, there is no biblical mandate or logical reason to perpetuate the tradition of a legalistic and superstitious Interpretation of Lev. 24:16.

B. Therefore, what must be determined is the proper pronunciation of this personal name of God. And the two choices we have are Jehovah and Yahweh.

C. Jehovah is a manmade word (traced back to Galatinus in the year 1520 AD) which does not provide either a translation or even a transliteration of the personal name of God.

1. It is however, a transliteration of the traditional form of the Hebrew word which combines the consonants of YHWH and the vowels of adonay.

2. The vowel sounds are represented as follows:

a. The short e comes from the aleph (an almost silent consonant that takes on the sound of the vowel associated with it) of adonay (with the very short a sound represented by the vowel sign, pathach/sewah).

This is a very short sound between short "a" and short "e" which follows the "y" of YHWH. Thus, "ye."

b. The 0 comes from the daleth (d) with the vowel sign cholem, and is placed after the "H" of YHWH. Thus - "ho."

c. The ah sound comes from the "nay" which is a qamets with a yodh; and is placed after the "W" of YHWH. Thus Wa. And the final "H" from YHWH is placed at the end.

3. And all together it comes out as YeHoWaH.

4. But the German Y sound is represented by the letter J and the letter W is pronounced as a V. And since the German had a big influence on these matters, it comes into English as JeHoVaH.

5. So you can see how man-made this is and that it could not possibly be the proper pronunciation of God's personal name.

D. Thus we can use Yahweh, to be accurate or Jehovah, to be traditional. But we must also recognize that God would not reveal himself through the man made traditional word, Jehovah.

The Lord's Day
The term “Lords day” occurs only at Rev. 1:10, so it is difficult to be dogmatic about its significance. The word, Lord’s, is an adjective and occurs elsewhere in the New Testament only at 1 Cor. 11:20, “the Lord’s supper.” Outside the bible, it was commonly used to indicate “imperial” or having to do with the emperor. Early Roman documents use the term, “Emperor’s day” or “augustus day,” which was the first day of the month.
It is suggested that the early Christians adopted this term to refer to the first day of the week in honor of Christ’s resurrection, and in protest against emperor worship.
Anyway, there is no basis for making this refer to the “Sabbath.” The Sabbath was, is and always will be Saturday and was not an issue in Christian living or worship. Nor is Sunday any kind of replacement for the Saturday Sabbath.

From Robertson’s Word Pictures; Revelation 1:10.
On the Lord's Day (
en th kuriakh hmerai). Deissmann has proven (Bible Studies, p. 217f.; Light, etc., p. 357ff.) from inscriptions and papyri that the word kuriako was in common use for the sense "imperial" as imperial finance and imperial treasury and from papyri and ostraca that hmera Sebasth (Augustus Day) was the first day of each month, Emperor's Day on which money payments were made (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:1). It was easy, therefore, for the Christians to take this term, already in use, and apply it to the first day of the week in honour of the Lord Jesus Christ's resurrection on that day (Didache 14, Ignatius Magn. 9). In the N.T. the word occurs only here and 1 Corinthians 11:20 (kuriakon deipnon qe Lord Supper).


1. Love is the primary motivator in the Christian life. Rom. 13:8; 1 Cor. 13:1-3; Gal. 5:6

2. Love is the quality of character that seeks the benefit of others based on a dedication to Divine viewpoint standards.

A. The benefit of the unbeliever: moral and salvation needs. 1 Cor. 10:31-33
B. The benefit of the believer: spiritual, moral and physical. Rom. 14:19; 1 John 3:17-18

3. This quality or character must be learned and cultivated by feeding the soul with the Word of God 1 Tim. 1:5; Phil. 1:9

4. Then it must be put into practice by volitional compliance with those character standards based on dedication to God's plan. John 14.23; 1 John 3:18

5. Love is a summary word for the total expression of Christ's character, and as such becomes our guideline and example.

A. This is the ultimate in creature conformity to the design of the creator. Imitation - Eph. 5:1-2; Mt. 5:48; Lk. 6:36

B. This is really the fulfillment of 2 Pet. 1:4 - partakers of the divine nature.

C. It is only possible for the believer, since the unbeliever is outside the family of God, and has no capacity to imitate the Father.

D. And in the believer, it is only possible through application of Bible Truth.
1 Tim. 1:5; 2 Pet. 1:5; Phil. 1:9 (Rom. 8:8)

E. That is knowledge of the Creator's viewpoint, not just facts.
Our mind is to be conformed to Divine wisdom - not religious facts.
Rom 12:2; 1 Cor. 8:1; Col. 2:3-8

6. The specific qualities of love are described in 1 Cor. 13:4-7. (15 virtues of love)
It is this description which establishes the principle of the love structure.

7. Now we must study the basics of Christian dedication.

A. Secular meaning of agapaō:

1. To attach a mental value on something so that your attitude is one of dedication to or occupation with.

2. This meaning is employed many times in the Bible: loving God, the world, darkness, light, things, people.

B. But God has taken the Greek word and given it a technical meaning pertinent only to Christianity. It goes beyond simple dedication to the actual soul character that develops as a result of properly directed dedication.

C. Loving is simple. Anyone can do it. It is just the expression of one's value system in life. You love what is important to YOU.

D. For the unbeliever and the believer out of fellowship, the value system is constantly fluctuating. But it is always centered around kosmos treasures - human viewpoint.

E. When the unbeliever hears the gospel. his value system which is based on darkness standards, is challenged and he is forced to make a decision which one to follow.

F. It he redirects his love for darkness standards to the new value system he sees in the gospel then he will trust in Christ as his savior. This is basic love dedication to God.

1. Jn. 3:36, hear and obey
2. 2 Thes. 2:10, did not receive the love of the truth so as to be saved.
3. 2 Thes. 1:8, obey the gospel (Rom. l6:26; 1 Pet. 4:17)
4. Luke 8:13, receive the word with joy

G. If this love is genuine it seeks to learn more about God through His word. Growth dedication.

H. So after salvation, loving God is the basic dedication needed to pursue the growth process. Loving God is expressed by obedience to the growth command: found in the Bible.

1. Growth commands: I Pet: 2:1-3; 2 Pet. 3:18; Rom. 12:1-2; Psalm 19:9-11; (warning -2 Tim. 4:2-4)

2. Application of diligence at 2 Pet. 1:5
3. The policy for growth:

a. God's written revelation: 2 Tim. 3:16-17
b. The ministry of the Holy Spirit: Jn. 16:12-15
c. The authority of the communication gift: Eph. 4:11-16
d. The classroom of the local church: Heb.3:l2:14; 10:24-25

I. Success in the growth process begins building the love structure which results in a stable value system based on divine standards which leads to functional love and dedication.

J. Functional love is application of truth in every area of life with primary emphasis on details of life. Jn. 14:23

1. Self control and endurance
2. 1Jn.2:15, love not the world
3. James 4:4, friendship with the world = enemy of God
4. 1 John 3:17-18
5. Mt. 6:19-24
6. Mt. 10:34-39
7. Jn.21:15

9. Through consistency in functional love, there develops the capacity for advanced love-dedication to God. Eph. 3:19; Jn. 17:26

A. The experience of eusebeia and philadelphia
B. Consistency in the character qualities of I Cor. 13:4-7

10.Love then, in the context of the love structure is the ultimate embodiment of Christian life dynamics.

A. Character reflection: righteousness
B. Soul stability: the joy and peace of the abundant life
C. Production: spiritual service through confidence
(Rom. 14:17-18; 15:13; 5:2-5--no intimidation)

11. The self control of the love structure includes: (Gal. 5:22-23)

A. detail control: Titus 2:12 - sensibly - morally
B. grace orientation:
C. Application of divine viewpoint to others - faithfulness.
D. Application of Divine viewpoint to morality: goodness (Col. 3:12)
E. Grace generosity: kindness
F. forgiving attitude: patience - Col. 3:13b

12. The endurance of the love structure includes:

A. patience toward people - makrothumia
B. patience toward things - hupomonā (Cf. stego at 1 Cor. 13:7)
C. forbearance - Col. 3:13a
D. It is the reality of endurance which brings about the peace of the abundant life.

13. The worship capacity of the love structure involves: (Col. 3:16)

A. spiritual integrity - conformity to Divine policy
B. prayer, witnessing, giving, ritual
C. This is included in the "proven character" of Rom. 5:4 which results from endurance.

14.The family loyalty of the love structure involves:

A. All the previous qualities with emphasis on preserving the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. Col. 3:14

B. This too, is part of the proven character of Rom. 5:4.
C. And it is through this consistency that joy is experienced.

15.And thus all together, the love structure is built into LOVE. Eph. 4:16

A. The result is total confidence in every area of life.
B. This then gives capacity to fulfill our priesthood and ambasadorship without tactical failures.

C. Rom. 5:4-5 confidence to unashamedness = impact.

16. SUMMARY: Col. 3:12-17

17. See The Love Structure Diagram and detailed study of 2 Peter 1:5-11



LOVE: How to Treat Others

1. Attitude:

A. 1 John 4:7 - Command: love one another

B. Rom. 13:8 - Obligation: owe no one anything but to love.

C. Rom. 13:9 - Quality: Love your neighbor as yourself

D. Rom. 13:10 - Goodness: Does no wrong to a neighbor

E. Phil. 2:3 - Priority: placement of value on others

F. Phil. 2:4 - Benefit: what is best for others

G. Mat. 5:44 - Extent: love your enemies

2. Action:

A. 1 John 3:18 - Love in deed and in truth

B. Mat. 7:12 - do unto others as you would have them do to you.

C. Rom. 15:2 - Please others for their good and edification.

D. Mat. 10:8 - freely you have received; freely give.

E. 1 John 3:17 - Don't close up your heart to those in need.

F. 1 Tim. 6:17 - Not conceited and selfish

G. 1 Tim. 6:18 - do good, be generous, share

3. Speech:

A. Eph. 4:29 - no unwholesome word (rotten)

B. Eph. 5:4 - no filthiness and insensitivity

C. Col. 4:6 - seasoned with salt (helpful, attractive)

D. Phil. 2:14 - no grumbling and complaining

E. 1 1Pet. 4:9 - no grumbling when sharing

4. Forgiveness:

A. Eph. 4:32 - kind and concerned

B. Col. 3:13 - bearing with and forgiving

C. Rom. 12:17 - don't pay back evil for evil

D. Rom. 12:19 - don't take your own revenge

E. Eph. 5:2 - Christ is the example

F. 1Pet. 2:23 - Keep trusting God

5. Conclusion: Rom. 12:21

"Do not be overcome with evil; but overcome evil with good."




©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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